Theory and Practice of Urbanism since 1945

Theory and Practice of Urbanism since 1945

Urban context
Noteworthy development of metropoliss ; with the two facets: population and country ; has made the 19th century a singular period in Europe. The industrial revolution, population enlargement every bit good as the development of economic market were factors that contributed to this growing, which are familiar to history of urban in Europe. In footings of facing these force per unit areas of human ecology of urban substructure, with an purpose to retain political, societal, and aesthetic, metropolis functionaries put attempts into direction and ordinance of their metropoliss. Many Europe metropoliss has transformed with the developed planning during a 19th century, their districts were enlarged, walls and munitions were eradicated, and more unfastened infinites were provided for urban citizens. Almost half of the century from the terminal of the Second World War, the town planning theory had a figure of critical displacements and two singular alterations of town planning has been perceived: ” From the contriver as a originative interior decorator to the contriver as a scientific analyst and rational decision-maker” . As a affair of fact, the point of position of the town planning really dragged out back into the history.
The be aftering itself occurred within a circumstance of urban development that was traveling to transport on, with program or even non. The metropolis functionaries tried their best to administrate their metropoliss enlargement and to represent that development every bit much as they could.
Refering on the sectors of wellness, hygiene and flows of traffic, the position of the modern planning metropolis is seeable. At the terminal of the 19th century, the theory of several urban theoreticians as Camillo Sitte, Ebenezer Howard, Joseph Stuebben and Raymond Unwin was about Cities – particularly capital one – had been following the procedures that were modified in a period of the 19th century. Since 1970, Ildefons Cedra, foremost believing about the thought of a functional, hygienic metropolis, he combined and developed two theories, including: “Theory for the Construction of the city” and “General Theory of Urbanization” . Hence, his proposal led to the uniformity of all the signifier of colony.
In instance of Antwerp, at the star of the 19th century, Nieuwstad became a military base during the first period of the 19th century. The emperor requested the building of Bonapartedok and Willemdok. Port activities lifting helped Nieuwstad holding the current visual aspect of dock country of het Eilandje. There was a pronounced lessening in utilizing recesss and canals for internal pilotage. Their chief map is for sewerage of families and fouling trades, therefore the canals turned into an beginning of diseases, and steadily befogged.
At the terminal of the 19th century, the quays, borders of the River Scheldt was straightened. As a consequence, the whole country was destroyed, the new quays became the topographic point for developing heavy port activities but the relationship between the quays and the metropolis was cut by the wall along the quays.In the yesteryear, Antwerp faced with the growing of population and the hygienic job of lodging. Today, Antwerp has to face with the fact that the population will be decreased. Furthermore, Antwerp, today, is non every bit attractive as it was in the yesteryear and the fact that it becomes an derelict metropolis. Bernardo Secchi’s theory about Public Sphere mentioned that an attractive public infinites can assist to pull people and work out the job of the migration. More on that, he ever pays an attending on survey the history of the metropolis.
”The whole history of the metropolis can be written maintaining in head the compatibility or mutual exclusiveness of the people [ … ] Intolerance denies propinquity, it separates and creates distance between activities, edifices, public infinites, their dwellers and users” Bernardo Secchi.
Besides, the supply of the theoretical edifice capacity and the mix-used inclination of development draw up the vision for the regeneration of Antwerp.
Nieuw Zuid is the name of the undertaking which located between Scheldts Quays, Namenstraat, Jan van Gentstraat, Brussels Street and the Ring. The undertaking is the portion that extended from the Scheldt to Antwerp South Station and the bing Singel to the railway Antwerp Central-Boom Puurs. To be more inside informations, the undertaking graduated table is 70 hectare included 30 hectare of new residential development with about 2000 lodging units and comfortss in forepart of the quay. From get downing of the trading activities on the port in the 60s, the country was wholly disregarded. Until 2006, the gap of the Palace of Justice and the redevelopment of the former cargo station of Bank of Breda someway have positive consequence on this abandoned country.
Since spring 2010, the proprietor of most of the country of New South and the developer of the country every bit good open the competition between interior decorators to happen the solutions and do the vision for the site and the victor is a squad on the Italian bureau planning Studio Associato Secchi-Vigano . Furthermore, Nieuw Zuid has an appropriate place in the metropolis of Antwerp. It creates the flexible joint between the 19Thursdaycentury metropolis and the present storage and the south issue composite of the Antwerp ring. To be more item, the country of the site is divided into four parts included: quays, undertaking Niew Zuid, Resruimtes and Konijnenwei.

Nieuw Zuid are designed to be a mix-used territory
– Covering more or less 2000 houses
– 20000 to 40000 square metre are spent for local comfortss.
-40000 to 70000 square metre will be local installations and offices.
– Commercial maps occupy about 20000 square metre ( stores, eating houses, … )
Green countries is one of the most critical standards that the Antwerp metropolis and Developer want to pay more attending in this country. Because the proportion of green infinite inside the metropolis is deficient. Therefore, 15 estates of park of Konijnenwei and about 5 estates of green country and a additive park on the quays are someway can be compensation for the deficit of Antwerp metropolis.
In this paper, the elements, grounds and factors of this undertaking will be analyzed, examined and compared thorough the relevant theories of station war period.
Strategy ( Structure Plan of the City )
Antwerp Zuid, today, is a really dynamic country in the metropolis with many “horeca” and cultural maps. In the Structure Plan of the metropolis, the ultimate mark is to do an effort to continue, stress and better these maps with the available financess of land in the local country. The development of Nieuw Zuid undertaking is the publicity of the procedure to work and do full usage of the value of the site. Through the yesteryear, the military substructure of the Citadel is still exist and, of class, it plays an of import function in the maps of the country. Furthermore, this site is considered as a boundary, an border to split and divide the 19Thursdaymetropolis and the outer life in southern small towns. In fact, Antwerp is the 2nd biggest metropolis in Belgium, therefore the land that still keeps its ain natural feature like Nieuw Zuid is truly value. Besides, it place is straight perpendicular with the Schedts river, the lone one river run through the metropolis and that give the footing and chance to repossess this site and make new image for Antwerp City. Since 1992, the international competition and exhibition named “ Stad aan de Stroom” somehow showed the ability to alter and make the vision for this country is feasibleness. At that clip, the procedure was delayed and developed by its proprietors subsequently. The chief construct of the Structural Plan mentioned about how to make strong physical links with the 19Thursdaycentury portion of the metropolis and with the binnenstad every bit good. Furthermore, it besides about how to widen the connexion between the interior land with the quays and the river every bit good. To be more specific, the purpose of the undertaking is to make a mix-used metropolis, combine all facets of lodging, commercialism, services and somehow to go a topographic point to counterbalance for the city’s lacks. Besides, the public infinite and reorganisation the Spaghetti node can be a important function in the manner to organize the construction of this country.
In general, the vision, the first attempt to restitute this urban country was taken in the yesteryear and the metropolis, developers somehow acknowledge the possible the value of the site. They already pointed out all the chief elements, positions and the manner to develop Nieuw Zuid for the hereafter. Some maestro program were made and some more of import things were showed but the most critical things is how to transform all of these things in to world?
Bernardo Secchi, theory about the populace sphere and theoretical edifice capacity for Structure Plan
Bernardo Secchi ( 1934 ) was an designer, theoretician and urban planning. For about 50 old ages, he was ac centre of all the statements and arguments of European and Italian about the urban design. His research was placed on the discant about the infinite and society and his theory was affected by station 68 Gallic theoretician. Harmonizing to his pattern, he designed and gave programs and vision for several metropoliss in Europe, consisting Brussels, Antwerp, Milan, Lecce, Paris, etc. In 1990, he and Paola Vigano established the Studio.
Harmonizing to his theory, he believes that the capacity of adjustment of signifiers of appropriation over several clip period is one of the of import facet of the populace sphere. Critical to his attack was a trust that mundane activities are able to happen merely if there was sufficient clip, supply for the new wonts to detect. Therefore the design of public infinite must implicate
“…a slower gait, in which mundane wonts can once more lawfully play a function. Too frequently there is a refusal of the infinite of life which is a uninterrupted building site, continuously traversed by mobile populations and activities, ne’er making a recognizable stable status. There is a necessity for a narrative which, as Wim Wenders says, “protects its ain characters.”
One of the ultimate mark of the metropolis Structure Plan is deriving the denseness, FAR every bit good in the urban country and stressing the urban characteristic and that is the “solid” urban countries.
“Theoretical edifice capacity is based on an stock list of all unbuilt tonss in 1998. Different classs are distinguished based on their characteristics and official denomination. A first estimation was made based on the densenesss of the specific built contexts. Some Numberss were adapted based on informations deducing from new undertakings ( Nieuw zuid, Eilandji, Prestibel, etc.”
( Beginning: SECCHI, Bernardo ; VIGANO, Paola, Antwerp Territory of a new modernness, Amsterdam SUN, 2009, pp-163 )
The degree of consummation was based on a rectification component, for secret plans by the side developed roads, examined vacancy and neglect rate, edifices have a consummation rate of 30 % over a decennary and 41,4 % over a period of 15 old ages ; and even ranges to 50 % over ten old ages if holding all right economic encouragement policies. The completion rate may increase to 70 % in lodging and urban development countries. It is able to construct 15.088 lodging units over 15 old ages with economic encouragement.
The Striga the type of the lodging block that used to domain the construction of the maestro program. A high spot in this figure aims to demo the function and assortment of unfastened infinites. Besides, the agreement of unfastened infinites are make a signifier to form the handiness, that is means when come ining the edifices each one have cross the public infinites. On the one manus, public infinites, unfastened infinites play a important function based on the theory, unfastened infinites are the centre of the block, the connexion between two edifices and all of these infinites are unfastened to the street. Therefore the denseness, FAR every bit good can hold topographic point to be increasing. On the other manus, the denseness of the site is ever kept the balance with the porousness. The tallness of the edifices is limited and have a good agreement, the floors of edifices is limited by the breadth of streets and the huge infinites between edifices. It is a clear rule of the Striga. Besides, the transit web strategy in this site is complicated, the new construction helps to simplify the strategy of transit. With these theory and accommodating the demands of the metropolis of Antwerp, the squad of Secchi- Vigano won the competition on September 2012.
Schemes that highlight the yesteryear as a cardinal component as the present.
The urban undertakings must be done that based on the peculiar survey of the history of urban of the country, typically for bing spermous undertakings and programs, whether or non they have been finished. Precedences can be set up thanks to these programs and undertakings that needed for the growing of the metropolis and stairss are pointed out for the midterm. However, the hereafter of the metropolis does non hold to history, the purpose of the urban historical survey is giving the footing information for the design to vouch the integrating with the bing metropolis.
“The aspiration is to an urban linguistic communication that reflects and demo continuity and discontinuity with the Antwerp tradition. That shows that an advanced and sustainable vicinity is besides a converting piece of architecture of the city.”

The Striga, public and private.
A mix-used urban country, flexible mobility
As an against to the functional planning of the metropolis, the sensible combination all of the maps to make a mix-used metropolis is acquiring understanding of occupants, by the manner, making this thing can hedge the struggle of all maps. Between 19Thursdayand 20Thursdaycentury, the traditional mix-used metropolis of this period was become a paradigm for planned multi-functionalism. Because of its benefits, there is a strong inclination of urban development based on the mix-used thought.


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