The communications media used in the educational system

1. Executive Summary
This report examines the means of communication at universities. A brief definition of communication will be given initially, followed by a description of the means of communication currently used in universities. The report then focuses on e-learning, examining the method and the blended distance course. Within the distance course will examine the synchronous and asynchronous method. So those will be presented this vantage and disadvantage of e-learning compared to the traditional teaching method, being concluded that the e-learning is essential to the educational system and recommended the implementation of distance education at University of Westminster
2. Introduction

The communications media used in the educational system has been suffering major changes in recent times. The traditional method has been complemented or even replaced many times by the current method where e-learning has been outstanding. E-learning can bring great benefits to the educational system, complementing or being another option for those who do not have the opportunity to attend the traditional method. The aim of this report is to examine the communication system used on the educational system is special on higher education, focusing on the e-learning method. Firstly, it will talk about the means of communication, secondly the traditional teaching method, third on the e-learning and finally will present the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning compared to traditional teaching methods.
3. Communication
The definition of Communication is given by Collins English Dictionary (2009) as “the exchange of information, ideas or feeling.” Communication can be classified and divided in different ways. According to Gallegher (2010), communication can be one-way or two way communication; verbal and non verbal, and also says that the communication can be inter or intra communication.
3.1. One way communication and two way communication.
One way communication occurs when there is no feedback or interaction during the communication. Two way communication occurs when the recipient asks clarification and interacts with the sender
3.2. Verbal and non verbal
The verbal communication occurs when there is the use of words and can be written or spoken. Examples of written communication are: newspapers, posters, advertisements, books, while some examples of spoken communication are: speeches, discussions, lectures and presentations. Non-verbal communication uses other means that is not through writing or speaking, such as facial expression and body language.
4. The means of communication in the educational system
The means of communication used in the educational system has been through major transformations following the technological advancement. According to An evaluation of students, the traditional method of teaching in the UK and in most of the world is characterized by one-way transmission from the lecture to the student, which refers to the teacher-center model of teaching, where information is transmitted to the students through the knowledge of the teacher, without much questioning by the student. However, this method has been changed, and the aim of the educational system has been supporting the activities of students rather than simply convey information. According to Gibbs (1995:1) student-centered method, encourages “learner activity rather than passivity; students’ experience on the course, outside the institution-and prior to the course, process and competence, rather than the content where key decisions about learning are made by the student through negotiation with the teacher ‘. The growth of this new method of teaching has as a major factor, the implementation of e-learning by higher education institutions.
5. E-learning
According to Clarke (2004), E-learning is a general term that covers different methods which have in common the use of Information and Technology of communication, and may be as a complement to a traditional course as well as an online course where teachers and students do not meet. The term e-learning is the result of a combination occurring between the educations with the help of technology. The e-learning added new meaning to apprenticeship and blew up the possibilities in disseminating of knowledge and information to students and, at a fast pace, opened up new horizons for the distribution and sharing of knowledge, making it also a form of democratization of knowledge for the layers of the population with access to new technologies, giving them the knowledge available, anytime and anywhere.
With the development of web technology, the processes of interaction in real time became a reality, allowing to the student to have contact with knowledge, with the teacher and other students, through the media technological
5.1. Blended-Learning
This is a new method that has been growing in popularity, which is based on e-learning as a complement to studies in the classroom. Clarke (2004:120), defines blended learning as “the integration of e-learning approaches with more traditional methods”. As an example of this method we can mention the Blackboard used by universities.
5.2. Distance courses
The training and continual updating of knowledge and skills of human resources are now a crucial element to achieve an effective and efficient performance. The application of information technology and communication to the area of training led to the creation of a new mode of apprenticeship: the distance course. According to Mealy and Loller (2000), Distance Education (DE) occurs when education is provided without the student and the institution being on the same physical location.With the distance course the student starts to having time to learn at their own pace, with the assistance of a tutor, without losing the ability to interact with other course participants.
5.2.1 E-learning synchronous and asynchronous
There are two distinct ways of teaching through distance learning: Synchronous and Asynchronous. Synchronous is when teacher / tutor and student / trainees are in lesson to the same time. Can be cited as an example of resources synchronous phone, chat, video conferencing and web conferencing. Through web conferencing, the teacher ministers the classes and students can hear the contents transmitted by the teacher. Thus, students may also ask questions and discussions. This is the model that most closely resembles the traditional teaching. “The concept of classroom is extended to distance learning through the use of technology.” Mealy and Loller (2000:20) Asynchronous
In asynchronous e-learning, teacher and students are not in class to the same time. According to Mealy and Loller (2000), the main feature of this method is that the student can participate in the study schedule that suits you. The teacher also is not limited to a specific schedule and can answer questions or participate in discussions at different times of the student.
The big difference in asynchronous e-learning is that time is “elastic” giving greater flexibility to the students in their learning, research and study.
5.3. Advantages and disadvantages of e-learning compared to traditional methods
5.3.1. Advantages
According to Remenyi (2005), the three main benefits of e-learning are: Reducing the impact on the environment, quality education affordable and Convenience and flexibility for the student Reducing the Impact on Environment
There is no need of traveling; resulting in diminution of pollution reduces the use of papers thereby contributing to the environment Quality education affordable
Through e-learning, great teachers can share their knowledge without physical barriers, political, or economic, thus reducing the cost of education making it more affordable,
– The student can study at a respected university, out of state or even country, e-learning takes the social and physical barriers by giving everyone the same level

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The materials are more accessible, depending on the method, can be available 24 hours 7 days a week, with no need for change in lifestyle. The student has the opportunity to create a personalized pace.
5.3.2. Disadvantages
According Remenyi (2005), the three major disadvantages related to the E-learning is the lack of interaction between student and teacher, the lack of interaction between students and the need for basic computer skills. Lack of interaction between student and teacher
The tutor has a higher difficulty in judging the level of acceptance, understanding and retention, since it is not possible an immediate response from the student.
There is a need for a higher level of motivation and higher autonomy of learning than classroom training Lack of interaction between students
Depending on the method used e-learning, such as the course distance, because there is no participation in the classroom, there is no socialization among students, which can lead to negative outcomes such as lack of ability to work as a team. Need for basic computer skills
Need some experience in using computers and Internet usage, also some appetite for the use of technology
6. Conclusion
With the increasingly widespread use of new information technologies and communication, it becomes essential the adoption of these in the teaching and apprenticeship. The process that performs this learning environment is called e-learning. In eLearning, flees to the traditional model of teaching, the learning process is student centered, which can build its self-education course, interacting with the available content according to their learning needs in a way flexible, how, when and
wherever you want, being the teacher / trainer the catalyst developing this process.
In eLearning, the papers the teacher / trainer and school / university are not being replaced. What changes is its function, no longer educational agents, to be partners in apprenticeship. Therefore personal contact is not unappreciated, but become more interesting.

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