Group Assignment Of Operating System Information Technology Essay

Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux Operating System, freely available with both public and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas preserved in the Ubuntu platform, that software should be available free of charge, that software should also be usable by people in their own local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have freedom to customize and change their software in whatever way they see it fit. Developers have access to all the source codes, thus being able to mix new functions easily or to find and remove programming viruses ‘quickly. So drivers for new adapters (Graphics Cards, SCSI Controller, etc.) can be combined very fast. Since Linux was brought in 1991 by a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds. During that time, it only able to run i386 systems, and was essentially an independently-created duplicate of the UNIX kernel, mostly the Linux was planned to take advantage of the then-new i386 architecture.

Nowadays Ubuntu 12.10 would be named Quantal Quetzal. Ubuntu 12.10 is the current was released on schedule on 18 October 2012, and with it a range of new features and tweaks have been made to the popular Linux distribution. In addition, in Ubuntu 12.10 includes some number of changes, is not least of which a single distribution is that every one of them is available to download it the regardless of their architecture. At the 800MB of the size, it should be a fastest to download it for most of the users, and easily fits on any old USB stick. GNOME 3.6 applications in Ubuntu 12.10 was already updated to Linux kernel 3.5.4 and also able to become viable on desktop, laptop and phone application. Unity has also changed just because Unity 3D and Unity 2D is no longer to present it has to be going forward. For the hardware of Ubuntu is using the Gallium llvmpipe software rasterizer, which of the Unity look, but doesn’t require a 3D-accelerated graphics card.

System Requirements

In the system requirements, the operating system requirements mostly is vary among Ubuntu products. Ubuntu 12.10 in minimum memory requirement is 768 MB of system memory and 5 GB of disk space for Ubuntu Desktop. In addition, the Ubuntu operating system is belong to the household type of useful operating system support for digital, music, photography, computer games and so on, to provide home users in a simple way and easy to use in house environment. A Pentium 4, and 1GHz system is the minimum recommended for a system in desktop. Below is a list of hardware speci¬cations that the computer should meet as a minimum requirement before an installation.

Hardware Requirements:


1 GB of system memory


1GHZ x86 processor

Disk Space

5 GB

Monitor Resolution

1024 X 768 resolution


32 bit or 64 bit

CD-ROM drive


VGA Graphics interface


Normally for some user want to install Ubuntu with the system providing with as little in 20MB for s390 to 48MB for i386 or 64 it is possible to install it and also included the 64-bit x86-64 CPUs should be more fast enough to run Ubuntu system can be able to run to the 32-bit x86 version as well. For an installation especially for some users is wishing to run more than 3 GiB of RAM however, a 64-bit of installation CD is available to install it. The 32-bit version is easier to use and runs into less problems. In disk space requirements, especially if you want to install it, you are able to see the section called “Disk Space Needed” for additional information on disk space requirements. For the installations server as those is very useful is depend on the server is to be used for, there will be possible to give a full common in system of memory and disk space requirements.



An interface is what you see when you look at your monitor or the collection of words, pictures, key buttons and it is also list of options that lets you to do thing. A user interface is the visible service provided by the operating system. The interface is a place where interaction takes place between the user and the computer program.

There are 3 main types of user interfaces. They are Graphical User Interface (GUI). Command Line Interface (CLI) and Menu Driver Interface. Users can use the Interface and give orders to the computer which in turn are converted into machine language by the Operating System and then executed.

In Ubuntu 12.10, the default user interface is a Graphical User Interface it accepts input from the computer keyboard and mouse provides articulated graphical output on the computer monitor.

A Command Line Interface is also available in Ubuntu which can be accessed by the user if required to perform any advanced work in the operating system. Where the user provides the input by typing a command string with the computer keyboard and the system provides output by printing text on the computer monitor.


Ubuntu Desktop 12.10

C:UsersnasserDesktop zlUq.png

Command Line Interface

Process Control Management


Process in the Ubuntu 12.10 operating system is a unit work with unique which progresses in a system begins. Thus, this process will go through about a small series such as same internal representation for processes and threads. A thread is a new process it to sharing the same address space as its parent and thread is created by the clone system call when a distinction is to made.

• fork – is to creates a new process with its own entirely with new process context.

• clone – is to creates a new process with its own identity, but that is only allowed to share the data structures of its parent.

Processes states

In Ubuntu processes is created with a fork until it has completed its job and disappears from the process table, it goes through like this many different states. In addition, the state a process it will changes many times during its “States.” These changes can occur, for example, the process will ask for a resource that is currently not available when the process is making a system call, it is someone else’s turn to run, an interrupt occurs. A process is active while a program is passive. The operating system it will keeps track of processes when using a process table.

Below the picture was shown the process state details and diagram of process state.

Ready – The process is competing for the processor, but another process is will currently being executed.

In Ubuntu 12.10, there have many processes in memory need to execute it, but there possible make one processor to execute one process at a same time. Other processes have to wait and prepare for the allocation from the processor, it called ready state.

Execution – The process is active or running or being executed by processor.

Suspend – The process is waiting for an external event.

Stopped – The process has been suspended by an external process.

Zombie – The process has finished executed, but it is still references in the system.

Terminated -This process is complete execution.

Figure : Linus Process

Process Control Block

A Process Ubuntu 12.10 operating system is represented a data structure in the core of operating system and it also related the data records of process. It called Process Control Block, process control block which are (PCB) is to contain information associated with important information about the specific process including:

Process State – The information about the process state; ready, running, blocked, terminated, new.

Process ID – Is a process to assign a unique identification number, when it is entered into the system.

Program Counter – This program counter is the information about the contents of the CPU registers.

CPU Registers -CPU Registers is to hold the processed the result of calculations or addresses pointing to the memory locations of desired data.

CPU-Scheduling information – The Ubuntu 12.10 operating system is important include in scheduling such as information, pointers to scheduling queues, scheduling parameters, and process priority.

Memory-Management information – In this memory management information is depending about the operating system, it included the page tables, segment tables, or value of the base and limit registers.

Accounting information – Is the information about included the process number, CPU used by the process time limits etc.

I/O Status information – This I/O status information is Storage indicators, refers to the file table record which are allocated to processes it.

Deadlock Management

Ubuntu 12.10 in deadlock can occurs in many situations and may or may not be handled. Deadlock it can be happen on any kind of shared resource and with more than two processes think of three or more then processes in a circle. Linux Kernel ignores deadlocks because it happen so infrequently that the cost to manage monitoring and resolution far exceeds the benefit of available at all that time, the process it able to enters a waiting state and the process requests resources. Deadlock is de¬ned as the deadlocked if each process is set waiting for an event and permanent blocking of a set of processes that compete for system resources. In addition, a deadlock situation arises if two of the following conditions are held simultaneously in the Ubuntu operating system:

Mutual exclusion

– Only can one process can use a resource ate time

– The mutual-exclusion condition must be holding for a non-sharable resources example printer.

– In Ubuntu 12.10 we cannot prevent deadlocks by denying the mutual-exclusion condition, because some of the resources are intrinsically non-sharable.

Hold and wait

– A process can able to continue to hold a resource while once is waiting for other resource.

– A protocol that can be used required for each process to request and able be allocated all its resources before it begins an implementation.

No preemption condition

– No resource can forcibly be removed from a process holding it.

– Resources previously granted cannot be forcibly taken away from a process. They must be explicitly released by the process holding them.

Circular Wait condition

Each process can request resources only in an increasing order of enumeration.

Every process can able to demand resources only in an increasing order of enumeration.

If these two protocols are used, then the circular-wait condition cannot hold.

In Ubuntu 12.10 the way to overcome deadlock situations we have:

Deadlock handling strategies:

Just ignore the problem altogether(The Ostrich algorithm)

Deadlock prevention – Deadlock prevention is a condition imposition to remove any of possibility of deadlock occurrence, sometimes it can be clean solution or cause poor resources utilization.

Deadlock avoidance – Ubuntu 12.10 in deadlock avoidance is less stringent conditioning otherwise is better resources utilization and does not precondition the system to remove all deadlock possibility.

Deadlock detection – is a systems that allow deadlocks to occur and identify the deadlocked process, resource or to clear deadlock.

Deadlock prevention – It is to removing no preemption condition may be hard to ignore because each process should have at least few resources to perform a given task.

Deadlock recovery – Deadlock recovery of Ubuntu is a methods used to clear deadlock of process flush and partial or all previous work done by these processes being lost.

Banker’s Algorithm

The Ubuntu 12.10 in Banker’s algorithm is running by the operating system which a process requests resources. Other than that, the algorithm prevents deadlock by denying or postponing the request if it determines that accepting the request could put the system in an unsafe state one where deadlock could occur. When a new process is enters into a system, it must be declaring the maximum number of instances of each resource type that may not exceed the total number of resources in the system.

• State of the system is the current allocation of resources to process

• Safe state is where there is at least one sequence that does not result in deadlock

• Unsafe state is a state that is not safe

• Two cases

• One type of resource

• Multiple types of resources

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