This chapter is an introductory chapter that intends to clarify the background of the study and discuss several related studies to indentify its problem statement. Based on these discussions, the study determines the specific research problem. Accordingly, the research method, research objectives, and research assumption will be formulated. Finally, the chapter presents the scope and the limit of the research, research framework and the structure of the thesis organization.
The architecture of the mosque gives a way of understanding about the relationship between Islam and the culture of the local people. This study aims to discover thermal environment at traditional Malay mosque in Kelantan. The main objective is to generate general profile of indoor thermal environment to see how the mosque’s design interact with the environment. Religious building especially the mosque for Muslim must respect the environment, perpendicular with the religious’ thought. Kampung Laut Old Mosque was selected as the case study and 3 main points was determined based on the function and the opening’s design.
Through the literature review, the study investigates….
The study use the quantitative surveys.
The building of a mosque can be interpreted as language that explains the concept of Muslim’s prayer house with certain contents or messages from Islamic religious perspectives. Mosques are designed from the consequences of Muslim’s adaptation upon its surrounding and therefore can be viewed from two main perspectives which are the function and form. (Omer, 2010)
Representing Islamic architecture, mosque has allowed creativity for Muslim to design their mosque suitable for their surroundings. (Omer, 2010)
Mosque’s function is clear and same regardless which land the mosque is located, that is to convey the oneness of Allah through obligation like Solat (prayer). The form of mosque is different however. There is no particular size or shapes that must be possessed by a mosque. Since Islam embraced people throughout the world, mosque development has responded to climate, technological and socio-political concerns. (Rasdi & Tajuddin, 2007)
There are numbers of studies done on mosques that concerned only on physical or architectural design and less revealed the philosophical side of the mosques. In one of the studies, mosques in Malaysia were classified into several styles and possible influences. Seven styles of mosques discovered in Malaysia are Traditional Vernacular, the Sino-Eclectic, the Colonial, the North Indian, the Modern Vernacular, the Modernistic Expressionism and the Post-Modern Revivalism. (Rasdi & Tajuddin, 2007)
Mosque or masjid is derived from the original word of sujud, sajada, sujûdan that literally brings the meaning of prostration. (Sulaiman, 2007)
In a deeper meaning, mosque is a specific place to worship Allah through solat or prayer obligation.
Connection that exists between mosque and environment can be seen through the concept of the mosque itself which is a place to worshiping Allah through prayer obligation. (Sulaiman, 2007)
facilities should be a physical locus of the actualization of Islamic message, which solely to glorify Allah. (Omer, 2010)
In addition to that, Islamic architecture must also represent the religion and the identity of Islamic culture and civilization.
Kampung Laut Old Mosque had become a famous place to visit since 1940s by Muslim community not only from the local, but also from other foreign people. (Akib, 2003)
The mosque has been renovated same like current condition in the era of Sultan Muhammad IV (1900-1920) to support user which increased to perform prayers and other religious activities. (Akib, 2003)
The renovation of the Kampung Laut Old Mosque in 1988 installed the electrical fan. (Akib, 2003)
Nowadays, energy issues had become very important issue because of discovered research recently that the world is facing energy shortage in the future. (Yilmaz, 2007)
The Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) has developed the guideline ‘Code of Practice on Energy E¬ƒciency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-residential Buildings’ as a guide for energy-e¬ƒcient measures in Malaysian buildings. This Malaysian standard also states that passive methods should be considered before going to active methods. Malaysia Standard (1525, 2007)
(Ahmed, 2008) stated if the buildings in Malaysia practised energy efficiency, more than 40% of the energy consumed can be reduced.
Modern building design mostly ignored the passive design element. (Tantasavasdi, Srebric, & Chen, 2001)
sustainable has become a trend in architecture field of the world. This is due to the ecological and environmental crisis which become worsen recently such as alam yg semakin tenat, pencemaran, bencana alam. -designer mencari penyelesaian terhadap isu ini dan penyelesaian nya adalah dgn menerapkan elemen sustainable. malaysia juga tidak ktinggalan dgn isu ini bukti =?.
Energy effieciency adalah satu komponen di dalam sustainable. tujuan utk jimat tenaga di smping jaga alam. salah satu cara utk mendapat energy efficiency adalah dengan passive cooling. Ramai designers yang terlepas pandang dgn kaedah ini memandang kaedah ini adalah satu kaedah lama.Padahal cara ini telah terbukti menghasilkan satu hasil sustainable architecture yang sangat hebat dan ini dapat diteliti pada Malay architecture yang sangat mematuhi element of sustainable di antaranya local material, ecological friendly, energy efficiency, dll… Dan salah satu antara buktinya adalah Kampung Laut Old Mosque.
The mosque has already been built since 17th century. Meaning that the mosque has already been built for hundred years. And it is still intact until now. The mosque is well design not only represent the aesthetic of Malay tropical architecture, but also to give adequate thermal condition to the user. thermal condition in mosque must be adequate to give comfort to the user to perform their prayers in tranquility and reverence. Even though it was built in era of no electricity, means that it doesn’t use any electrical fan, but it manage to serve the user until now.
thermal comfort – comfort condition in temperature, air flow and relative humidity
terbukti bagus dr segi design.
isu tenaga n sustainability..how about the energy consumption. many research about user thermal comfort but not about the building’s thermal performance
no research about the energy…remain secret =’is it energy wise or waste?’
The energy required for heating and cooling of buildings is approximately 6.7% of the total world energy consumption. By using passive cooling strategy. at least 2.35% of the world energy output can be saved . In hot climate countries, energy needs for cooling can amount to two or three times those for heating, on an annual basis .
Passive cooling is a method to menaikkan keselesaan terma tanpa menggunakan elektrik / meminimumkan pnggunaan elektrik. Banyak cara passive cooling antara natural ventilation, opening, shading dll. Kaedah ini banyak diterapkan dalam senibina lama. Antara contoh senibina lama adalah old Malay house. Old mosque in Malaysia also implement passive cooling method in the design. Traditional architecture such as old mosque use natural ventilation to control indoor thermal comfort (Tahir, Che-Ani, Abdullah, Tawil, Surat, & Ramly, 2010)
Passive cooling method was proven to give adequate thermal condition to the user.
In light of the above explanations, the study research the effectiveness of passive cooling at Kampung Laut Old Mosque. Analysis of thermal performance were made in this study. The focus is limited to the several variables of thermal performance assessment of the mosque which are the air temperature, air flow and relative humidity.
Based on the previous study, building’s thermal performance is…………….
sustainable issue recently. Refer just to new buildings, but forget to refer the old. Energy efficiency, not learn from passive way. New building tend to implement active cooling to enhance better indoor thermal performance.
because there is no proof that told the traditional building is energy wise. Just recognized as valuable heritage, traditional building
Usage of mechanical cooling
(Mosque nowadays did not concern about passive design element when they concentrate more on providing ventilation additional tools such as electrical fans and air conditioning)
To understand the distinctive attitudes regarding the concept of……many similar studies have been analyzed, illustrated, described and summarized their approaches and methodologies. These previous related studies will be classified in main categories namely………. The following sections describe each approach accordingly.
1) sanusi – traditional house penang
2) abel – ventilation at international house usm
3) Mohamed Bakhlah – indoor temperature at Al-Malik Khalid mosque
4) Nedhal Ahmed – thermal performance at Fajar Bakti (ecotect)
Kampung Laut Old Mosque does
This analysis aims to have a research finding to show that the old Malay mosque offer comfort of thermal environment through natural ventilation
1) To prove whether the traditional Malay architecture can provide adequate value of thermal environment or not.
2) To measure and generate a general profile of thermal performance (air temperature, air flow and relative humidity) in naturally ventilated Kampung Laut Old Mosque
to simulate effect of opening and orientation to the indoor thermal
The research framework (Figure ??) has four phases as follows:
First Phase: Theoretical study on….
Second Phase: building measurement and survey
Third Phase: data collection(data measurement) is the third phase of this study. The research data will be collected through
Final Phase: Finally, the data will be analyzed….
(Analyse the ventilation system of the building which was designed before the era of electrical appliances. – passive cooling
Identify the Why this mosque is still adequate, intact and still be used. – Korek rahsia keberjayaan passive design elements
With the proven the effectiveness of passive cooling method, thus will promote Identify passive design element at traditional mosque to be implemented at new mosque design
(study about indoor thermal environment in the mosque, not study about user thermal comfort)
just at Kampung Laut Old Mosque, weather is unreliable, not original location of KLOM, not sophisticated measuring devices
(data not accurate – it is not the original design of the mosque, it is not the original site for the mosque, weather nowadays was significantly changed, the air and climate quality is low compare to old time.)
Hope another research can do a study at original condition by simulating it using computer program.
This study is organized into six chapters as follows:
Chapter one is an introductory chapter presenting general information about the study background and discussing previous related studies……… It outlines the research methodology, research objectives, research framework and the scope of the study.
The important terminology to be cleared is the differentiate between thermal comfort and thermal environment. Thermal comfort is regarding the thermal affect to human body while thermal environment the subject is not involving human.
Indoor thermal environment refers to the heat flow inside the building. It is related to a building interaction with the surrounding environment. A building interacts differently with the surrounding environment depending upon its orientation, shape, envelope’s materials, windows size and location, building shading, and natural ventilation. (Baker, Kensek, Schiler, & Milne, 2007)
By definition of (ASHRAE, 2004b), thermal environment is the characteristics of the environment that affect a person’s heat loss.
The environmental parameters that constitute the thermal environment are: temperature, humidity, air velocity and personal parameters (clothing together with activity level). (Olesen, 2004)
The environmental factors addressed in this standard are temperature, thermal radiation, humidity, and air speed; the personal factors are those of activity and clothing. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
Non-thermal environmental factors defined as air quality, acoustics, and illumination or other physical, chemical, or biological space contaminants that may affect comfort or health. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
The thermal environmental performance can be decided by evaluating all of the criteria in this standard since comfort in the indoor environment is complex and responds to the interaction of all of the factors that are addressed. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
The air velocity can lead to improved comfort in a space under warm conditions. (Olesen, 2004)
Local climate can greatly affect the indoor thermal environment of buildings. (Tantasavasdi et al., 2001)
The indoor thermal environment is related to a required level of ventilation. (Olesen, 2004)
To evaluate indoor thermal environment in a space of a building, the condition must exclude mechanical cooling devices (Olesen, Seppanen, & Boerstra, 2006)
Air temperature is defined as the temperature of the air surrounding the occupant.
Air velocity is defined as the rate of air movement at a point at any direction.
The air velocity is a quantify defined by its magnitude and direction. The quantity to be considered in the case of thermal environments is the speed of the air movement. (ISO, 2001)
Relative Humidity, RH is the ratio of the partial pressure (or density) of the water vapour in the air to the saturation pressure (or density) of water vapour at the same temperature and the same total pressure. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
Long term high humidity indoors will cause microbial growth, and very low humidity ( <15-20%) can cause dryness and irritation of eyes and airways. (Olesen et al., 2006)
The evaluation of the indoor building is made by evaluating the indoor environment of spaces representing different zones in the building. (Olesen et al., 2006)
Evaluation can be based on design, field measurement and calculations. Thus it will determine thermal environment quality and ventilation criteria. (Olesen et al., 2006)
Malaysia is situated 2° 30N’ and 112° 30E’ referring to geographic coordinates and has similar climatic characteristics as other hot and humid countries – high temperatures, high humidity and plentiful of rainfall throughout the year. Malaysians live in diurnal temperature environment. The thermal environment ranges from minimum 21°C to 25°C and maximum 30°C to 36°C, with the mean relative humidity of 70-90%. For peninsular Malaysia, lowest mean temperature occurs during April and May while highest mean temperature occurs in December and January each year. ((MMD), 2011)
In tropical climates, buildings are overheated during the day due to solar heat gain through the building envelope and solar penetration through windows. (Rajapaksha, Nagai, & Okumiya, 2003)
In general, the thermal environment conditions for human occupancy was set at 26°C as an upper limit of comfortable temperature. (ASHRAE, 2004a)
However, many studies have concluded that the comfort temperature is higher in tropical regions, since humans have the ability to acclimatize. (Emmanuel, 2005)
According to (Ahmad & Szokolay, 2007) stated that the comfort condition for all types of building in Malaysia is between 23.6°C and 28.6°C. Air humidity for comfort condition should be in the range 40% to 60%. For a naturally ventilated building, the comfort condition for air movement is 0.3m/s to 0.5m/s.
Kampung Laut Old Mosque is a living museum. (Abdullah, 2000)
MASJID Kampung Laut, arguably the oldest mosque in the country, still serves its primary purpose as a house of worship as it survives yet another century. While it continues to draw the Muslim faithful, researchers and history and architecture students also come here to unlock and get insights into the vast history and knowledge found within its walls.
Built in the 1400s by a group of seafaring missionaries plying the Jawa, Pattani and Brunei sea routes, the all-timber mosque is, by most accounts, a living museum. It has survived two big floods the first in 1926, known as Bah Air Merah, and another in 1966. The second flood severely damaged the building when portions of the mosque close to the river was swept away by flood waters. Some of its stilts were left dangling in the air when the ground underneath was washed away by the flood.
Its contemporaries, by virtue of architectural resemblance, are said to be Masjid Demak (Jawa) which was built in 1401, Masjid Kono Campa, Masjid Nat Tanjung and Masjid Wadi Hussein, the last two in Thailand. The mosque was relocated from its original site in Kampung Laut (hence, the name), Tumpat, to the compound of Universiti Malaya Islamic Academy in 1968.
The history of the mosque has been pieced together over the decades through the recounting of tales from Kampung Laut elders as well as studies by researchers who travelled to places where old mosques of similar architecture were built. The accepted story behind the mosque is that the seafaring missionaries faced danger when their ship sprang a leak. They are believed to have made a vow that if they reached shore safely, they would build a mosque. As luck would have it, the missionaries found themselves ashore at Kampung Laut and immediately built the mosque with the help of the locals.
The original mosque was a basic, structure with four pillars and had palm fronds for its roof, measuring 400 square feet. Between 1859 and 1900, from the reign of Sultan Muhamad II to Sultan Muhamad IV, the mosque became an important meeting point for religious scholars in the region and correspondingly Kampung Laut flourished as a trading post. During this period, the mosque was expanded and upgraded with 20 pillars, a three-tiered roof, a tower (for muezzin to call for prayers), an attic, serambi, balai-balai and a water tank while the flooring was made of sturdy chengal wood. (Abdullah, 2000)
Natural ventilated building is a type of building which its thermal environment is occupant-controlled naturally conditioned spaces. (ASHRAE, 2004b). Kampung Laut Old Mosque is one example of the building.
(ASHRAE, 1997) defined naturally ventilated premise in which a centralised heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems are absent and windows are operable. Some form of cooling and heating may be present, but it would normally be under the control of building occupants, either individually or in small groups.
Passive design is a design approach that uses natural elements such as sunlight and air movement. Passive designs take advantage of the sun light to give lighting inside the building. Buildings that employ passive design require little maintenance and reduce the building’s energy consumption by minimizing or eliminating mechanical systems used to regulate indoor temperature and lighting. (Aun, 2004) defined elements of sustainable in building design as orientation, size and shape, material, structure, space, joints, decorations, design, space, layout planning and organization, window system or design, construction detailing and thermo physical properties. The passive design approach is one of the core elements of sustainability.
Natural ventilation may result from air penetration through a variety of unintentional openings in the building envelope, but it also occurs as a result of manual control of a building’s openings (door, windows). In both cases, air is driven in/out of the building as a result of pressure differences across the openings, which are due to the combined action of wind and buoyancy-driven forces.
Natural ventilation can be used not only to provide fresh air for the occupants, necessary to maintain acceptable air-quality levels, but also for cooling, in cases where the climatic conditions allow it, because of the direct influence on thermal comfort sensations experienced by occupants. This term is used to describe ventilation processes caused by naturally produced pressure differences due to wind and the stack effect. Natural ventilation is achieved by infiltration and/or by allowing air to flow in and out of a building by opening windows and doors. The term ‘infiltration’ is used to describe the random flow of outdoor air through leakage paths in the building’s envelope. The presence of cracks and a variety of unintentional openings, their sizes and distribution determine the leakage characteristics of a building and its potential for air infiltration. The distribution of leakage paths in a building determines the magnitude of wind and stack-driven infiltration and the nature of air flow patterns inside the building. Typical air leakage paths in a residential building are shown in figure ??
The inflow and outflow of air through large building openings, such as windows and doors, in occupant-controlled natural ventilation is mainly due to the effect of the wind. However, thermal forces attributed to the temperature differences also play a significant role, especially under conditions of low ambient wind speeds. The effectiveness of natural ventilation also depends on the size of the openings and their orientation to the prevailing wind direction. Parameters influencing the airflow rate through large openings are discussed in the following sections.
Successful design of a naturally ventilated building requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns around it and the effect of the neighbouring buildings as well as the existing design strategies to improve ventilation. The objective is to ventilate the large possible part of the indoor space. Fulfilment of this objective depends on windows location, interior design and wind characteristics.
Content Analysis – literature review from local publications and international sources.
Case Studies – elemental analysis
Direct Observation – visual analysis through observation and architectural photography.
Quantitative research methodology was the approach used for this study as it is an experimental and technical research.
Validation of Ecotect was carried out by comparing the computer simulation results with the field measurements of the indoor thermal environment in the Kampung Laut Old Mosque.
Output data from Ecotect were compared to the fieldwork data in terms of indoor/outdoor air temperatures and air velocity and relative humidity.
The field surveys were done by measuring the air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity using mobile device. The measurement were done at 3 main zones at Kampung Laut Old Mosque for 3 days during the most windy duration (north-east monsoon) and 3 days during the least windy duration (south-west monsoon)
– MMD, monsoon season report
For validation, the field surveys were done. Then, the simulated data from Ecotect was compared to the data of field survey.
– use same date, same duration
For the purpose of finding reliability, this study has considered validation steps.
– the assistants for data measurements were briefed about the method to do the measurement on the site.
– the measuring devices were checked and calibrate to optimum condition.
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis 2011 simulation software was chosen to simulate the three dimensions (3D) drawing of Kampung Laut Old Mosque under Kota Bharu weather data.
weather data from energyplus energy simulation software
The latest weather data for Kota Bharu, which is the region of the case study is not available in Ecotect database. So, the weather data base was retrieved at International Database of Weather Data??
(Yin, 2008) suggest that the term refers to an event, an entity, an individual or even a unit of analysis. It is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence.
(Anderson, 1998) sees case studies as being concerned with how and why things happen, allowing the investigation of contextual realities and the differences between what was planned and what actually occurred.
(Patton, 1987) describes the selection of case study methodology is to probe an area of interest in depth. Case studies become particularly useful where one needs to understand some particular problem or situation in great-depth, and where one can identify cases rich in information.
Case studies have been criticised by some as lack of scientific rigour and reliability and that they do not address the issues of generalise (Johnson, 1994). However, there are some strengths of case study.
1.Case study enables the researcher to gain an holistic view of a certain phenomenon or series of event (Gummesson, 1991) and can provide an overall picture because many sources of evidence were used.
2. Case study can be useful in capturing the emergent and immanent properties of life in organizations and the flow of fast changing organizational activities (Hartley, 1994).
ada yang guna measuring devices, ada yg guna calculation melalui formula2 khas.
(ISO, 2001) state the time constant of a sensor is considered to be numerically equal to the time taken for the output of the sensor, in response to a step change in the environmental quantity being measured, to reach 63% of its final change in steady state value without overshoot. The response time, which is in practice the time after which the quantity being measured can be considered to be sufficiently close to the exact figure for the quantity to be measured, can be calculated from the time constant. A 90% response time achieved after a period equal to 2.3 times the time constant. It is necessary to wait, as a minimum, a time equivalent to the response time before a measurement is taken.
The measurement must be made in occupied zones of the building at locations where the occupants are known to or expected to spend their time. The location is depend on the function of the space. Typical examples of location where the most extreme values of the thermal parameters are estimated to occur is near the windows and openings, diffuser outlet, corners and entries. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
The physical quantities shall be measured at several points and account taken of the partial results obtained in order to determine the mean value of the quantities to be considered in assessing the thermal performance. (ISO, 2001)
(ASHRAE, 1997) stated for the measurement with occupancy distribution cannot be estimated, the measurement locations shall be as follow :
a) In the centre point of the room or zone
b) 1.0m inward from the window or opening
Measurements are to be made sufficiently away from the boundaries of the occupied zone and from any surfaces to allow for proper circulation around measurement sensors. (ASHRAE, 2004b)
(ASHRAE, 2004b) categorized minimum spatial average for air temperature and air velocity measurements as at the ankle level, the waist level and the head level. These levels are 0.1, 0.6, and 1.1m respectively, for seated occupants, and 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7m for standing occupants. Relative humidity shall be measured at the 0.6 m level for seated occupants and the 1.1m level for standing occupants.
(ASHRAE, 2004b) specified conditions for measurement to determine the performance of thermal environment as follows:
Busch.1990 done the thermal field survey for tropical climate at two season which are the hot season-april and wet season-july (thailand)
Busch, J.F. (1990) Thermal responses to the Thai office environment, ASHRAE Transactions, 96, 859-872.
The air temperature shall be taken into account when determining heat transfer by convection at the level of the person.
Care should be taken to prevent the field survey from being subjected to radiation from neighbouring heat sources. This is to ensure the actual temperature of the air. (ISO, 2001)
Thermometer placed in a given environment does not indicate the air temperature instantaneously. It requires a certain period to reach equilibrium.
A measurement should not be made before a period has elapsed equal to at least 1,5 times the response time (90%) of the survey. (ISO, 2001)
Air velocity measurement is to determine heat transfer by convection and evaporation at the position of a subject. It is difficult to perform accurate velocity measurement in spaces because air flow fluctuates randomly and often changes its direction. (ISO, 2001)
In field survey, it is very difficult to measure accurately in one direction. Hot wire anemometer is recommended to measure unidirectional wind. (ISO, 2001)
By using hot wire anemometer, one can also determine the wind direction.
readings taken was the highest in 1minute???
Accuracy of the devices??
Relative humidity is the ratio between the partial pressure of water vapour in humid air and the water vapour saturation pressure at the same temperature and the same total pressure. The relative humidity of the air is to determine the transfer by evaporation of a subject. A high value of relative humidity reduces evaporation of sweat. (ISO, 2001)
Can be measured by hygrometer and psychometric chart.
Field experiments have shown that in naturally conditioned spaces, where occupants have control of operable windows, the subjective notion of comfort is different because of different thermal experiences, availability of control, and resulting shifts in occupant expectations. (ASHRAE, 2004b
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