AP World History Unit 1 Review Chapter 1 Evolution- The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. Paleolithic Age- Second part of the Stone Age distinguished by the first usage of stone tools introduced by hominids such as Homo habilis. Neolithic Age- Latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East in which sedentary agriculture and domestication of plants and animals and permanent settlements were accomplished. Agricultural Revolution (Transition) – Turning point for the Neolithic Revolution. 0,000-8,000 BC. Slash & Burn- Technique in agriculture where forests are roughly cut down and burned over to prepare fields for the next crop. Australopithecus- Fossil bipedal primate with both apelike and human characteristics found in Africa. Homo Sapiens Sapiens- Modern humans. Neanderthal- Extinct species of human that lived in ice-age Europe 120,000-35,000 years ago. Jericho- Village in Palestine near the north end of the Dead Sea. The Leakey’s- Family of paleontologists whose account of fossil discoveries in Tanzania changed theories of human evolution (1903-1972). Catal Huyuk- Large Neolithic settlement in southern Anatolia. 500-5700 BC Diamond- Precious stone consisting of a clear and typically colorless crystalline form of pure carbon. Venus Figurines- Prehistoric statuettes of women portrayed with similar physical attributes from Europe characterized by enhanced feminine features. Homo Erectus- Extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain that originated in Africa. Homo Sapiens- Bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools. Volume of brain at least 1400 cubic centimeters. Lucy- Partial female skeleton of a fossil hominid found in Ethiopia in 1974, and is about 3. million years old and 4 feet. Cro-Magnon- Early form of modern humans. European Early Modern Humans (EEMH). Southwest Asia- Area in which as early as 3000 BC had contained a variety of cultures. Also known as Mesopotamia, it was located in an area called the Fertile Crescent in present-day Iraq. It had large city-states in an area known as Sumer; Birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Sumerians- Developed the 12-month calendar and cuneiform writing. Lascaux- Site of a cave in the Dordogne, France, containing elaborate Paleolithic wall paintings.
Fertile Crescent- Crescent shaped area of fertile land in the Middle East that extends from the eastern Mediterranean coast through the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the Persian Gulf. Chapter 2 Mummification- Embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping to preserve the body. Ziggurats- Rectangular stepped tower found in ancient Mesopotamia surmounted by a temple. Hieroglyphics- Ancient form of pictographic writing used by the Egyptians. Old Kingdom- Period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first peak of civilization in complexity and achievement.
Middle Kingdom- Period of ancient Egyptian history. New Kingdom- Period in ancient Egyptian history between 1550-1075 BC. Epic of Gilgamesh- Earliest known form of literature. Pyramid of Khufu- AKA Pyramid of Giza Menes- Egyptian pharaoh; reigned 3100 BC. Founded first dynasty that ruled Egypt. Hammurabi (Laws)- Sixth king of the Bbylonian Empire. Known for his set of laws, which were one of the first recorded codes of law in history. Deals with matters of contract, and trade. Akhenaten- Ancient Egyptian pharaoh who reigned about 3,500 years ago. Made major changes including his religious revolution and art style. 8th Dynasty. Ethical Monotheism- There is one God from whom emanates one morality for all humanity. Kush- Kingdom that reached its peak between 1700 and 1500 BC. Allied with Hyksos and conquered Egypt beginning the 2nd Intermediate Period. Mesopotamia- 3500 BC. Known as the land between two rivers, Rains were seasonal in this area, which meant that the land flooded in the winter and spring and water was scarce at other times. Farming in the region depended on irrigation from the two Rivers. Phoenicia- 3000 BC. Group of individuals migrated from the Arabian Peninsula into the land of Canaan located between Egypt and Syria.
By 1200 BC, the Phoenicians controlled a narrow strip of land that bordered along the Mediterranean Sea in the northern Canaan where they built a number of cities and villages. Uruk- An ancient city of Sumer and later Bbylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the river. Nile- Unifying force in Egyptian history. Used to transport wealth and to shi stone blocks used to build the Pyramids. Euphrates- Provided water that supported the development of ancient Mesopotamian culture. Birthplace of the ancient civilizations of Assyria, Bbylonia, and Sumer; Al Jazirah.
Jerusalem- Religious center sacred to all three monotheistic religions. Israel was divided after Solomon’s death. Kingdom of Israel was in the north, while Judah was in the south. Pyramids- Used as massive tombs to enclose pharaohs or wealthy Egyptians. Cuneiform- Earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia. That writing system invented by the Sumerians emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BC. Archaic Period- Name given to generalized hunter-gatherer societies by in the American continents from approximately 8000-2000 BC.
Amon-Re- King of the Gods, Egyptian King; Thebes; Hermopolis; Sun God Osiris- Egyptian god of the underworld and vegetation. Hyksos- Asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile Delta, ending the thirteenth dynasty, and initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. Sargon of Akkad- Reigned Mesopotamia from 2334 to 2279 BC. Baby in a basket where he was picked up along the Euphrates River where he was found by a man named Akki. Was considered the greatest man who ever lived. Celebrated in glorious tales down through the Persian Empire. Hatshepsut- Fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
First great women in recorded history. Forerunner Moses- That guy. Abraham- Assyria- Egypt- Ur- Bbylong- Tigris- Anatolia- Chapter 3 Samsara- Karma- Sati- Caste- Lawbook of Manu- Indo-European- Upanishads- Kshatriyas- Shudras- Jati- Moksha- Varna- Dravidian- Rig Veda- Brahmins- Vaishyas- Indra- Aryan’s war god and military god. Varuna Mohenjo-Daro- Indus River- Punjab- Black Sea- Brahman- Harappa- Ganges River- Himalayas- Caspian Sea- Chapter 4 Mandate of Heaven- Book of Songs- Book of History- Book of Changes- Book of Rites- Tian- Yangshao- Xia Dynasty- Shang Dynasty- Zhou Dynasty- Qin Dynasty- Oracle Bones-
King Yu- King Fuzi- King Yao- King Shun- Fu Hao- Yangzi River- Steppes- Yin- Huang He River- Central Asia- Central Southeast Asia- Ao- Luoyang- Chapter 5 Olmec Calendar- Vigesimal- Chavin Cult- Pyramid of the Sun- Temple of the Giant Jaguar- Olmecs- Austronesian- San Lorenzo- Tikal- Teotihucan- Australia- Oceania- New Zealand- Maya- Mochika- La Venta- Chichen Itza- Mesoamerica- Bering Strait- New Guinea- Indonesia- Crucial Facts: * First Pharaoh of Egypt- King Menses The Fighter * Mesopotamians used Cuneiform * Societies that used Pictographic forms of scripture- Egypt (Hieroglyphics), Mayans, And Chinese. We know of the Aryans by the Vedas; Upanishads; Hindu Book * Paleolithic- Hunter Gatherers; No Sheep * Neolithic- Introduction of agriculture (Agricultural Revolution/Transition) * Archeologist- Studies ancient remains; Make approximations * Goddesses of Fertility- Venus Figurines; European * Most religions in Mesoamerica- Polytheistic * Harappans- Not much is known about them. Hindu. * Xia/Shang/Zhou/Qin Dynasties in Order * Copper was the 1st metal; Easy to find/mold. * Farming- Food surplus, possible for cities to exist, and sexual intercourse.
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