TOWARDS THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION Brief review of the quality of Higher Education in Ancient India: The system of higher educaton is started from the ancient times in India. During the ancient times, Education was closely linked with religon. It was taken up by Teachers as a labour of love and by the students as part of their training for culture and citizenshp. It was not universal education. In regard to higher instituton of learning – Tols (Higher Education) was developed among the Hindus and Madrassah (Higher Education) was existed among the Muslim.
Although the Hindu and Muslims had separate learning institution, many features were common to both the types of institution. Under the Buddhist rulers in India, Learning was fostered by the numerous monasteries under the guidance of monks and nuns. The Brahmanical system of education mainly centered at home of Individual Teacher was superseded by monasteries system of Buddhist education. For the first time in India, and perhaps in the whole world, a great famous Buddhist seat of higher learning like Taxila, Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi Universities were flourished in India which can be compared with modern Universties.
These Universities were better well organised than the Brahmanical higher education because they recieved state endowment for many centuries from the successive kings from the time of Buddha. The Universities introduced regular course of studies in different subjects and admission test for all students. There was no discrimination in admission and Technical Education and Women Education were also introduced as it recieved encouragement from the ruler and the rich people. Amongst these Universities of ancient India, Nalanda Universities was take its specialities.
Students from China, Nepal, Tibet, Korea etc came to study and obtain valuable knowledge. Entrance examination was very strict and only 20 percent of the candidates succeeded in getting admission during this period. Brief review of Indian Education Commission in Modern India: The system of higher education, which we find today in our country, started after the advent of the British in India. When the Brtish established their authority in India, they did not willing to take responsibility of educating the Indian people. In order to trained some Indians for minor jobs in the company’s office, they started schools and colleges.
By the charter act of 1813, only one lakh of rupees for the improvement of the quality of education was left. The British rulers only established many government and private colleges and the higher education was in a very disorganise at the time. Within a period of time, The British rulers realised that the necessity to organise and improved the quality of education and appointed Wood’s Despatched of 1854. As a result of the recommendations made by Wood’s Despatched of 1854, the Universities of Culcutta, Bombay and Madras were established n 1857 on the model of London University.
On the model of the formers, Allahabad University was also established in 1882. But all universities performed the functioned of only conducting examinations and affiliating bodies and undertook no teaching and research. In order to enquired the standard of Indian education and prepared recommendations, the Government of India appointed various Indian Education Commissions and selected eminent educationist as a members. Within a period of hunhred years, sixth Education Commissions were appointed.
The recommendations of sixth Indian Education Commissions can be conveniently studied under the following:- i) Indian Education Commission or Hunter Commisson, 1882:By accepting the recommendation of Hunter Commission 1882, the college education recieved a great impetus and a number of colleges were established during 1901-1902. ii) Indian Universities Commission in 1902:During the period of Lord Curzon, University Education made a great progress. In order to improve the quality of University Education in all branches, Lord curzon adopted the policy of control and improvement.
He appointed Indian Universities Commission in 1902 in order to enquired the conditions and working of the Indian Universities and made necessary suggestions. Two years later, Indian University Act 1904 was passed. This act brought many important change in the organisation, jurisdiction, powers and administration etc of the universties. The expansion of the university education was checked for sometime, due to lack of revolutionary change in the system of universities. But it was admitted later on which improved and reforms the conditions and standards of the contemporary universities and colleges. ii) Culcutta Univesity Commission or Sadler Commission, 1917:After the establishment of Allahabad Universities 1882, no new universitiy was established till 1917. However, a number of colleges were increased. In order to cope with the increased work, the Culcutta Univesity Commission or Sadler Commission was appointed by The British Government. Although, the commission was mainly interfere in the problems of Culcutta University, it gave out reforms and change which were great value into higher education in India as a whole. Now, the Universities were not only examining body, but became a centre of teaching and learning.
By accepting recommendation of the Commission 1917, more than 16 universities were established in different places of India till 1947. iv) Indian University Education Commission or Radhakrishnan Commission, 1948:The expansion of higher education has recieved a great impetus after Independence. Number of institution in the field of higher education and enrollement of students in the centers of higher studies were increased year by year. The university education was imparted through arts, science and commerce and professional colleges, researched institution.
The institutions deemed to be universities under the University Grants commission Act, 1956. In adition to Central universities, state universties and their affiliated colleges, Indira Gandhi Open Universty and other Open Universities are doing commendable job in the field of higher education. In order to meet the present and future requirements of the country, the Government of India appointed Indian Education Commission or Radhakrishnan Commission in 1948 to suggest improvements and extentions of th Indian Universities. The terms of reference of the commission were very wide and vast.
It suggested that various aspects of the university Education in India and means for the improvement and reorganisation of the university education. Research and other standard of university educaton, problems of teachers, curriculum, medium of instructon, religious education, problem of discipline, health and residence of the students an such allied problems in the perspective of the natonal and international conditions. In fact, The report of this Commissions is the most comprehensive report on education, but its recommendations is very important and far reaching consequences. ) Secondary Education Commission or Mudaliar Commission, 1952 vi) National Education Commission or Kothari Commission (1964-66): Since Independence, there has been a good deal of quantitative development of education but qualitative has lagged behind. Unimplementing of the policy of the directive principles of the constitution to make free and copulsory education below 14 years, problem of literacy, low standard of primary and secondary edcation, diversification of curriculum and problem of educated unemployment were the the main problems since Independence.
In order to evaluate the different stages of education and to evolved a National system of Education, the Government of India appointed the Kothari Commission in July 14, 1964. The Commission submitted its report and recommendation in June, 1966. People expressed high hopes when the Reports of the Education commission was first published in 1966. Already, several years have passed, nothing has practically been done to achieved the targets as recommended by the commission. The commission give any useful suggestion an the source of finance, on which the implementation of the recommendations entirely depends.
If it si of course a fact that it was not the bussiness of the commission to deal with the financial side, but we cannot ignore reality. The suggestion made by the Kothari Commission in respect of different organs of education were very important. The Government have already implemented some of the suuggestions and the effort are still being made to make important the rest of the suggestion. Taking all things into consideration, we may say that the report of the education Commission is a sincere attempt to improve the existing system of education in all aspects and in all stages.
If it can be implemented, it will remove some of the glaring defects of our educational system. Problems Higher Education: It is clear from the above discussion that the expansion of higher education has recieved a great impetus since independence. The policy of the government still has been to increase the number of the institutions of higher education rather than the aim at the qualitative progress of higher education. Besides this, the government did not pay proper attention to the multi-lateral problems of higher education and not made special effort to remove the defects of higher education.
Since recommendation made by the Kothari Commission, the government declared National Educational Policy of 1986. It is good that is being given to the specializaton in higher education. The problems of the higher and University education in india is nothing but the problems of Indian society in general. If we want to established a society based on the principles of democratic socialism, we must have reoriented the entire educational structure. Without a hgh standard of general, vocatonal and professional education, democracy cannot survived. But there is a still a lag between our Ideal and reality.
Our Universities have not been able to shake off the heavy load of bookish knowledge. The main problems for the falling of the standard and quality of higher and universities education in India are under the following:- 1. No definite aims among students of higher education:One of the problem which checked the standard of higher education is its aimlessness. Most of the student are recieved higher education without having any definite aim. the student must have definite aim before starting hgher education. In order to raise the standard of higher education, the university should change the aims and objectives.
Newmen remarks the aims of university education in 1952, “If a practical and must be assign to a university course, the i say it is training of good members of the society. ” 2. Increase of Wastage and Stagnation:The problem of wastage and stagnaton exist in a greater degree at the stage of higher and university education. Most of the important causes of wastage and stagnation are Ineffective methods of teaching, unhealthy environment of institution and society, defective system of curriculum and examination and lack of finance among the students etc.
In order to solve this problem, it suggest that to make healthy environment of institutions and society, revised and reforms of curriculum and examination system, raise the standard of teaching and given grants and loans to effort the study of students. 3. Lack of interesting subjects in Curriculum:Most of the the curriculum of college are old and out of date and failed to fulfil the interest of the student which checked the intellectual developmentof the student. Radhakrishnan Commission remarks, “A curriculum which had validity in the vedic period or the renaissance cannot continue unaltered in the 20th century. To solve this problem, the curriculum should revised and reforms for the interest of young advanced students. 4. Specialisation in Education:University emphasized spacialization in different subjects. After completed University education, students acquired special knowledge and skills in some particular subjects. Their outlook remains narrow and unbalanced to became completely educated in real sense. This narrow specializaton can be remove by establishing harmony between general education and specialization which developed the personality of the students and will became dutiful citizens. Absence of proper Guidance and Councelling for student:The absence of proper guidande and councelling, the students select their course according to their own choice or with thw advice of some inexperience persons. Consequently, most of the students make a wrong choice in their subjects and lost interest in their study. In order to solve this problem, the educational institution should make provision of experience and trained persons to provide proper guidandance and councelling of students from the beginning till the end. 6. Low standard of Teaching:The standard of teaching in our colleges and university is very low.
Many suggestions has made to raise the standard of teaching in education. The more prominents are – increase the salary of the teachers, balanced workload of teachers, improvement of service condition of teacher, provision of tutorial classes, well-organised libraries and laboratories, encouragement of debates and discussion, Professional training for Junior Lecturers and Re-orientation Course for new Lecturers. 7. Defective Examination System:The present examination system of our universities has many defects and severely criticized by ndian and foreign educatonist.
The university education commission of 1949 points out that, “If we are any single reforms in universty, it should be that of examinaton. ” It can be reforms through scientific method. In order to reforms Examination system, it suggest that adoption of continous comprehensive internal evaluation, semester system and grading system. It also suggest to developed question banks, demarcation of syllabus, setting and moderations of question, Evaluation of answer script and conduct of examinations. 8. Indiscipline among the Student:The problem of indiscipline among students is very serious and complicated in educatonal institution.
Financial irregularity, minor and disorderly misconduct, theft and burglary, sex misconduct, misuse of privledge and cheating n examination were the main problems of institutions. Professor Siddhant remarks, “the best way to solve is to divert the activities into healthy channels including sports, games, cooperative, living in hostels, self-management of masses, organise debates and symposia, councelling of indiscipline students etc. 9. Too much Interference of Student Societies in College Affairs:The student societies in educational institutions of higher education also make a serious problem.
They were too much interfered in the affairs of the institutons which prove to be a scourge. In order to reduce this problem, the uiversity ntroduced legislaton for keeping control of student societies. In order to developed the intellectual powers of student and homely atmosphere of instituton, the student societies should also organised programme like leadership training, Life skills training, seminars, workshop etc. 10. Rapid increase of the number of Student:The development of higher education in India is taking place rapidly since Independence. The numbr of students in higher institution is constantly increasing.
University Grants Commission remarks that, “If increasing number admtted in our universites without corresponding expansion of facilities, there is a great risk of the academic standard being imparted further. ” In order to checked the ncreasng number of students in university, It has been suggested that the new and modern method of selective system of admission should be adopted. 11. Non-availability of Educatioal Facilities and Lack of Funds :The main reason for the low standard of education in universities is non-availability of educational facilities and lack of funds.
The student face shortage of books, libraries are not well-equiped. In many degree college, no proper building and classroom and do not possess even playgrounds. To solve this problem, a high level committee should be appointed for providing necessary funds to the institution. The Government of India, the State Government and non-governmental organisations and the rich people should provide necessary funds and donations to raise the standard of higher education. 12. Poor conditions of the salary Teachers:The teachers of colleges and universties are getting less salaries and allownces in order to meet their expense.
Consequently, they are not able to devote themvelves with heart and soul into the teaching works. The Commission has made important provisions to increase the salaries and allownces of the teachers at different stage should be implemented by the Government. 13. Too much burden of the works and service of the Teachers: The teachers also have been burdened with too much work. and not able to performed th teaching work properly. The prominence teacher of university were given research work.
The Kothari Commission has remarked, “There is much serous concern that in many places there is too much teaching but relatively too little of good teaching. ” The Education commission has made important provisions to improvement the works and service of the teachers should be implemented by the Government. 14. Wide gulf between the Teachers and Students:The increasing number of students in higher education making a wide gulf between the students and the teachers. The teachers not able to recognise each students of the class and no interaction between them.
While in western countries the students and teachers work together like family and build good relationship between them, there is no relatinship between the students and teachers and separated their interest in India. In order to build relationship between the students and the teachers, it is necessary to adopt tutorial system. Beside this, the educational institution should also organise more interaction programme like debate and discussion, seminar, workshop etc which help the students to increase their knowledge with the help of the teachers.
Almost all the above problems have attracted the attention of the University Education Commission, which has made many suggestions to solve these problems. Most of these suggestions have been accepted by the government and many of them have already been implemented. It may, therefore, be hope that after solving all our present problems, the higher education will make the complete development of the personality of the youth and by developing their intellectual and physical powers will make them able citizens of the country.
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