The influence of ambush marketing on consumer attitudes

Research Strategy

The purpose of the research is to explain whether ambush marketing can be influential on consumers’ attitudes by examining factors including awareness, advertising attitude, brand image, the corporate image, which could be considered to be a tool to measure the effectiveness of the ambush marketing. This survey is executed in a way of exploring if the casual relationship between advertising attitude, brand image, and the corporate image and effectiveness of ambush marketing which in turn explains that ambush marketing can be influential and effective. Collecting primary data for this study is necessary and important since it is considered to be the helpful instrument to identify the effectiveness of the ambush marketing in this context. Collecting reliable data is important to prove key argument and the accuracy of the information that gives the reader a better understanding of the effectiveness of the ambush marketing at consumer perceptions. The hypotheses suggested here is that if advertising attitude, brand image, corporate image of consumer toward ambush marketing is positive considerably, the ambush marketing can be seen as influential and effective. If advertising attitude, brand image, corporate image of consumer toward official sponsor is negative considerably, the ambush marketing can be seen as influential and effective marketing strategy as itself.

Why have you chosen that research strategy?

Information that is needed and is generally known about the topic has been defined through literature review. The most appropriate method for collecting information about what we need to know should be determined in order to reach to the conclusion (Baker, 2003). Thus, quantitative research style with questionnaire was chosen for the research strategy in this paper. It is said that one of the common methods and best known source for data collecting is the questionnaire (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp). A survey with a questionnaire [1] has been conducted to find out more about the effectiveness of the ambush marketing at consumer perceptions. This project are better supported by primary research based on questionnaire methodology rather than qualitative analysis in terms of examining awareness, advertising attitude, brand image, the corporate image toward the brand in 2010 FIFA South Africa World Cup, Further to this, as Baker (2003) mentions that “questioning is a primary means of obtaining information from individuals concerning their attitudes, interests, behaviours, etc.”, it proves that the survey type research seems to be the most relevant way of collecting data is in this context. A questionnaire form of research is expected to provide standardised information of what consumers’ attitudes are. Each value will be contributed to prove the hypothesis. The questions in the questionnaire were designed to test and to justify the hypothesis. Primary research was carried out in Royal Holloway, University of London to access the opinions of university students towards ambush marketing. A questionnaire was developed with questions based on brand awareness, advertising attitudes, brand image, corporate image. Additionally, it gives an efficient way of collecting information from each respondent in terms of quantitative analysis. (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp ; and Baker,2003).” I will follow the notion of a grounded theory approach, as outlined by Glaser and Strauss (1967), which is an 8 inductive, qualitative research approach which creates theory based on empirical research rather than out of abstract thinking.

Data collection

The chosen sample for this survey is all management students who are studying at Royal Holloway, University of London. Overall 120 questionnaire papers were distributed and collected by hand and total response rate is 100%. 100 questionnaire papers were in use for analyzing after filtering 20 missing and not answered papers. The numbers of questions are 25 with Likert-style. For the variety responds, in-personal questionnaire in central location is chosen for my research. In order to collect information from a representative sample of respondents, data collection was undertaken in Moore building in Royal Holloway, University of London where management students gather for taking a rest and having a discussion which gives a better access to collect primary data from the target group. Any former approval was not required for the survey. The survey was conducted for a week from 7 February 2011 to 14 February 2011.

General Characteristics of the target respondents.







Design of Questionnaire

The questionnaire is designed to be easy to follow and consisted of the logical flow to give the reader understand the building up of evidence without having to go back and reread passages. The questionnaire was designed to measure brand preference, brand awareness, advertising attitudes, brand image, and corporate image towards official sponsor and non-official sponsor using multi-item Likert scales and List questions. A nominal scale was used for measurement of the survey. Likert scale is considered to be relevant for the survey since it shows clear and specific favourable or unfavourable attitudes toward the statements. Likert scale shows the level of measurement which help to collect data on consumers’ opinion (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp). It is consisted of 23 questions including three questions for brand preferences and brand awareness, four questions to examine advertising attitude by consumer’s favourable or unfavourable reaction, four questions to identify brand image that consumer has, four questions to examine the corporate image, one question about the effect of marketing campaign strategy of the company, and one question about recognition of ambush marketing. In addition, the effectiveness at consumers’ perspectives was captured by a numerical approach. In order to examine the awareness of the official sponsor and the ambusher effectively, a method of frequency of increasing recall was used by showing four advertisements during 2010 FIFA South Africa World Cup. The most recent global sports event, FIFA World Cup 2010 was selected for the survey. Further to this, four sample group was selected which could be seen as the most representative advertisement in the period of the World Cup. Two of them, Hyundai and Continental, are from official sponsor and the rest, Nike, Carlsberg, is from the ambush marketing campaign. This paper assumes that ambusher with high brand awareness and official sponsors with relatively lower brand awareness can be the best factors to compare, contrast, and examine the effectiveness of the ambush marketing. In addition, Nike and Carlsberg was selected because it is the most likely to be seen as official sponsors among ambush advertisement and has high brand awareness as the results of the survey shows the high percentage of brand preference and awareness response rates, whereas, Hyundai and Continental was selected because it is the official advertisements which does not bring noticeable and huge impact on public relatively although it is the officials and fast growing company by investing in advertising.


Each respondent was asked to answer awareness, advertising attitude, brand image, corporate image scale about two official sponsors and two ambushers.


The Number of Questions

Question style




Advertising Attitudes


Brand Image


Corporate Image


Effective strategy


List question





(4) Research reliability

Data analysis:

Describes and justifies methods and statistical tools (if applicable) used for analysis. Discusses measures taken to improve study validity. Summarizes outcomes of pilot studies, if applicable.

Dada analysis

Data analysis is started from the beginning of the basic level of analysis which allows showing a purely descriptive nature and ended up with the higher level of analysis using SPSS which allows interpretive analysis. Quantitative research techniques help to analyze and interpret the data after recording data using numerical codes ((Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp). Advertising attitude, brand image, corporate image by the level of brand awareness were conducted using t-test of SPSS. Simplified data using statistics enable to compare and contrast variables and to allow examining the relationship among data (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp).

사용된 methodì- 관한 설명.

Cramer’s V.Chi square.


Secondary Research

Prior to primary data, brief secondary section would give a better understanding of general idea of key theories. The range of secondary research came from book, academic articles, journals and the internet which helps to meet the criteria of answering the research question and to fulfill the objective. Causal relationship between advertising attitudes, brand attitudes, brand awareness, corporate image, and purchase intention would be defined through literature review and the outcomes would be applied to the findings from survey. Secondary knowledge helps to apply it to understand the research project and to associate findings based on other primary data. (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhillp). Secondary data is collected on a regular base over time which shows realiaiblity and accuracy of the data. It allowed to identify key theories and authors from a selection of literature and to provide key information with broad template.


“Although it does not guarantee that attitude leads to the actual behavior, people behave in a manner consistent with their attitudes/ beliefs. Thus favourable/ unfavourable attitudes provide the marketer with valuable information planning. (Baker, 2003)” “Attitude represents a predisposition to repond to an object, no actual behavior toward the object. Attitude thus possesses the quality of readiness. It cconnotes a preference regarding the outcomes involving the object, evaluations of the object, or positive-neutral-negative feeling for the object. (Churchill 1987 cited from Baker, 2003).”

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