Teachers are the pillars of the society

Dissatisfaction among workers is undesirable and dangerous in any profession; it is suicidal if it occurs in teaching profession. If factors responsible for dissatisfaction can be differentiated, attempts can be made either to change those conditions or to reduce their intensity so as to increase the holding power of the profession. This study attempts to find out which facet or dimension affects the job satisfaction of university teachers the most. The present study takes into account intrinsic and extrinsic factors to find out the level of job satisfaction and to see the effect of age, gender, marital status, education, occupation level and length of employment on the job satisfaction of academicians. This paper aims at identifying the facets affecting the job satisfaction of a teacher order of importance and accordingly suggests strategic action for creating and maintaining their job satisfaction.


Job is not only a main source of income but also an important component of life. Work takes away a large part of each worker’s day and also contributes to ones social standing. Because of work’s central role in many peoples’ life, satisfaction with one’s job is an important component in overall well being (Smith, 2007). Hence, the big question is-are you satisfied with the job? Employee satisfaction is supremely important in an organization because it is what productivity depends on (Wagner & Gooding 1987; Wright & Crapanzano 1997). If your employees are satisfied they would produce superior quality performance in optimal time and lead to growing profits. Satisfied employees are also more likely to be creative and innovative and come up with breakthroughs that allow an institution to grow and change positively with time and changing market conditions.

Improving educational performance ranks high on the national agenda, with educators and policymakers focusing on testing, accountability, curriculum reform, teacher quality, school choice, and related concerns. A high quality teaching staff is the cornerstone of a successful system. Attracting and retaining high quality teacher is thus a primary requirement for an educational institution (Sharma and Jyoti, 2006). For the development of quality teachers one has to understand factors associated with it. Job satisfaction is one of those important factors. Teachers’ job satisfaction is a multifaceted phenomenon (Sharma and Jyoti, 2006, Srivastava,Holani & Bajpai, 2005 ) that is critical to turnover (Hom & Griffeth, 1995), commitment (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990), and school effectiveness. Researchers, policymakers, and education leaders agree that teacher satisfaction is a vital factor that affects student achievement. Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be primary dependent variable in terms of which effectiveness of an organisation’s human resource is evaluated. Thus, the understanding of factors affecting teachers’ satisfaction at the workplace is of paramount importance for a successful educational system.


The factors that are associated with teachers’ job satisfaction are intrinsic, extrinsic and demographic factors.

Intrinsic Factors

Intrinsic satisfaction to the teachers can come from classroom activities. Daily interactions with students inform teachers’ feelings about whether or not students have learned something as a result of their teaching. Student characteristics and perceptions of teacher control over the classroom environment also are intrinsic factors affecting teacher satisfaction (Lee, Dedrick and Smith, 1991). Several studies have found that these factors are related to both attrition and satisfaction in teaching as well as other professions. Advocates of professional autonomy claim that conferring professional autonomy will enhance the attractiveness of the [teaching] profession as a career choice and will improve the quality of classroom teaching and practice (Boe and Gilford, 1992).

Intrinsic factors play a significant role in motivating individuals to enter the teaching profession because they enjoy teaching and want to work with young people. Very few teachers enter the profession because of external rewards such as salary, benefits, or prestige (Choy et al., 1993).

Extrinsic Factors

A variety of extrinsic factors have been associated with teacher satisfaction, including salary, perceived support from administrators, school safety, and availability of school resources, among others (Bobbit et al, 1994). These and other characteristics of a teacher’s work environment have been targeted by public commissions, researchers, and educators who claim that “poor working conditions have demoralized the teaching profession These groups (i.e., public commissions, researchers, and educators) believe that when teachers perceive a lack of support for their work, they are not motivated to do their best in the classroom, and when teachers are not satisfied with their working conditions, they are more likely to change schools or to leave the profession altogether (Choy et al, 1993).

However, while intrinsic forces may motivate people to become teachers, extrinsic conditions can influence their job satisfaction and their desire to remain in teaching throughout their career.

Demographic Factors

Similar to professionals in other occupations, job satisfaction in teachers has been related to demographic variables including age, education, marital status and gender. Perie and Baker (1997) in a study conducted on job satisfaction among more than 36,000 elementary and secondary public school teachers reported that female teachers reported higher levels of job satisfaction than male teachers and that teachers’ job satisfaction showed weak correlations with salary and benefits.

It has been consistently established that job satisfaction varies with age for men as well as women in various occupations. Majority of studies afterwards observed a “U” shaped relationship (Smith 1982; Clark, Oswald & Warr 1996), while still others reflected a linear relationship (Stone, 2000; Haque 2004).

Generally married adults are better adjusted than unmarried counterparts (Orden & Bradburn 1968). As adjustment is positively related to JS (Herzberg et.al. 1957) one may expect married teachers feeling more satisfied with their jobs.


The literature reviewed provided a piecemeal account of various dimensions of job satisfaction (JS). None of the studies completely focus on the subject of job satisfaction and its related variables. Therefore, the present study takes into account all the variables (intrinsic and extrinsic) viz., job contents, superior’s behaviour, co-worker’s behaviour, students’ behaviour, growth opportunities, pay and promotion pattern etc as well as demographic factors to study the job satisfaction of university academic. An attempt has also been made to find the relationship between the aforesaid variables and JS and to identify that which of these variables account for maximum variance in the job satisfaction of the university academicians.

Hypotheses and Objectives

Within the broader scope of research gap as emerged, certain core studies available in the existing literature lead to the formulation of following hypotheses and objective for the present study:

1) It has been experienced that challenging jobs create an environment of satisfaction. High strained jobs result in ill health (emotional exhaustion, psychomatic health problems) and active jobs give rise to positive outcomes like job challenge and JS (Jonge et. al. 2000). The nature of work done is very important element of JS. Infact, it can probably be said that it is the major determiner of JS. Herzberg et. al. (1959) found positive events dominated by reference to intrinsic aspect of job itself while negative events dominated to extrinsic aspect of JS. From this literature the first hypothesis stands as:

Hyp.1) There is strong relationship between job elements and JS.

2) One of the frequently cited reasons given by former teachers for leaving the job was dissatisfaction with their principals. Ahuja (1976) reported that dissatisfaction increases when one has to work under an incapable, inefficient and indifferent head or boss. Foles et al. (2000) revealed that there is a significant but small tendency for the groups experiencing democratic leadership to be more satisfied than those experiencing autocratic leadership. The role played by the superior towards the JS of an employee as indicated in the literature leads to setting of the second hypothesis:

Hyp.2.There is a strong relationship between JS of a teacher and behaviour of leader (H.O.D.).

3) According to Dwivedi (1977) friends, co-workers exercise their influence on an individual and affect his JS. Ramakrishanaiah (1998) found that 93 percent of college teachers who were highly satisfied with their job expressed cordial relations with their colleagues. Thus, this next hypothesis:

Hyp.3. There is positive relationship between co-workers’ attitude and JS.

4) The Herzberg theory (1959) emphasised job characteristics rather than individual differences. It suggested that jobs with opportunities for growth, achievement, recognition and advancement enhance motivation and JS. Career planning and development have also been recognised for enhancing job satisfaction of an individual (Sharma and Jyoti, 2006) and lack of career development is reported to be directly and negatively related to job satisfaction (Yousef, 2002). Thus, the next hypothesis:

Hyp.4.Growth opportunities and recognition affect JS of an individual.

5) It has been cited quite often by teachers that working with children was a source of satisfaction with their jobs (Smith1978). Parelius (1982) revealed majority of teachers were displeased with a large number of poorly prepared and unmotivated students. This helped to frame next hypothesis:

Hyp.5. Student’s positive behavior adds to JS of teachers.

6) Pay is arguably one of the most critical aspects of JS. The problem of employee attrition, the industry is facing, is mainly due to pay dissatisfaction. Actual pay and employee’s attitude towards it is subject of much research. Lawler (1971) suggested that pay satisfaction is a function of two perceptions (1) the amount of pay he feels that he should receive and (2) the amount of pay he receives. Although the root desire for pay as such is individual’s desire to satisfy his physical needs yet it can mean more than this. Thus the next hypothesis is:

Hyp.6. There is a significant relation between pay and financial aspects of job and JS of teachers.

7) Proper physical environment makes the job comfortable. Poor working conditions like poor building design and maintenance create situations for teachers that affect not only academic outcome but health too. Poor lighting, dirty and in-operational windows and dirty rest rooms are the source of teacher dissatisfaction (Schneider, 2003). Plananandanond, Laksana and Jose (2004) researched that overall working conditions are able to predict the satisfaction. On the basis of this literature the hypothesis is:

Hyp7: Physical environment prevalent in the university affects the satisfaction of teachers.

8) Time and again it has been reported that age exercises its influence on the job satisfaction of an individual (Dwivedi, 1977) and has been found to be an important variable in predicting the job satisfaction of an individual and relationship between them is both complex and fascinating (Rao, 1997). It is further revealed that job satisfaction is high in initial years i.e. 20-25, and above 40 years (Herzberg et. al. 1957; Sharma and Jyoti, 2004). All this leads to formulation of following hypothesis:

Hyp8: There exists a non-linear relationship between age and JS of an individual, other factors remaining constant.

9) Job experience is related to JS in a rather interesting fashion as one might expect new employees to be relatively more satisfied with their jobs but this honeymoon terminates after a period of time unless the worker feels that he is making steady progress towards the satisfaction of his occupational and social needs. Lewis (1982) found that teachers who had continuous experience in the current school were more satisfied than others. On this basis the following hypothesis was suggested:

Hyp.9: Job satisfaction increases with length of employment.

10) Educated workforce affects the degree of association between education and satisfaction in service as opposed to manufacturing organizations. For example, education may be negatively associated with satisfaction in manufacturing organizations because education may increase job expectations beyond a level generally attainable in these settings. Service organizations, on the other hand, may be able to meet or even exceed the expectations of highly educated employees. Education may be positively associated with satisfaction (Metle, 2001, Glenn and Weaver, 1982). Thus, next hypothesis is:

Hyp.10: The education level of an academician positively affects his/her job satisfaction.

11) A survey of skilled and unskilled workers indicated that occupation level was an important variable in determining employee’s satisfaction. Probe (1971) in a research project observed that higher the level of occupation, the higher is the satisfaction of the teachers. However, some of the research revealed that the elementary teachers are more satisfied than their secondary level colleagues (Birmingham, 1985 and Smith, 1982). Oshagbemi’s (2000) finding confirms the almost obvious statement that research satisfaction is related to rank – the higher the rank, the greater the level of satisfaction of academicians and that lead to formation of next hypothesis:

Hyp.11: Higher the level of occupation higher is the job satisfaction of academicians.

12) Park (1992) has asserted that women traditionally perceive themselves as teachers and nurturers of pupils and that, owing to social expectations as well as informal gender stereotypes, they are more likely to desire job satisfaction in their teaching career. This view has repeatedly been confirmed by studies in which women teachers have been observed to experience greater job satisfaction than their male counterparts. According to Lissmann and Gigerich (1990), female teachers are more pupil oriented than male teachers and consequently spend more time improving the class climate. This literature lead to the formation of next hypothesis:

Hyp.12: Female teachers are more satisfied than their male counterparts.

13) The correlation between marital status and job satisfaction appears statistically significant for male under age of 30 years, female aged 30 to 49, male over age 50, and female over age 50. Conversely, this association is statistically insignificant for females under age 30 and males aged 30 to 49. Meanwhile, we must conclude that married people generally possess higher job-satisfaction than their single counterparts (Knerr, 2006) because married adults are generally better adjusted than unmarried counterparts. Hence, the next hypothesis is

Hyp.13: Married teachers are more satisfied.


The study is evaluative cum diagnostic in nature as it tries to find the type of relationship between JS and various dependent and independent variables and stresses upon the aspects that affect this relationship. The following steps were taken to make the study effective and accurate:


Teachers working in University of Jammu have been selected as respondents for the sample. There are 255 teachers in the university. 150 teachers were approached for collection of data. Twelve teachers did not return the questionnaire and out of the rest only 120 teachers responded properly. The sample was selected on random basis with the help of random number table. A three digit random number table (Webster 1995) was selected and first 150 numbers of that table were picked up and the teachers’ names falling on those numbers in the alphabetical list of the teachers were selected as sample for the present study.


To produce a reliable questionnaire both primary and secondary information has been used. The questionnaire has been prepared on the guidelines of Job Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith, Kendall & Hulin 1969), the validity of which had already been tested (Angelo, Frances, Chester &Kenneth 2002). Likert’s five point scale and summated scale have been used for measuring attitudes. Besides, the demographic profile items, the questionnaire was divided into following sections:

1) Job itself;

2) Pay & rewards;

3) Superior’s behaviour;

4) Colleagues’ behaviour;

5) Growth opportunities & recognition;

6) Students’ behaviour;

7) Physical environment.

Besides, the demographic profile items, the questionnaire consisted of 84 statements in all seven sections i.e.; (a) 21; (b) 10; (c)8; (d) 15; (e) 11 and (f) 7 and (g) 12 and a master statement (global measure) “you are satisfied with your job” was also added that was used to find the relationship between above mentioned dimensions and job satisfaction. In order to collect to the data, visits were paid to teachers working in University of Jammu and the respondents were personally detailed about the purpose of the study and all other queries of the respondents before administering the questionnaire to them.


Factor analysis was carried out through SPSS to identify underlying factors that explain the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and to simplify and reduce the data to identify a small number of factors that explained most of the variance observed into much larger manifested variables (Foster 2002). It was carried with principal component analysis along with orthogonal rotation procedure of varimax for summarizing the original information with minimum factors and optimal coverage. The statements with factor loadings less than 0.5 and eigen values less than 1.0 were ignored for the subsequent analysis (Hair, et. al. 1995). Factor analysis was performed dimension wise that resulted into 16 factors with 57 statements (Table 1). The total variance explained (V.E) by factors in all the dimensions of JS ranged between 62 to 82percent. High KMO values revealed the adequacy of the data for factor analysis (Table 1).


The reliability of the data collected has been judged through tests. The split half, ANOVA and Cronchbach’s Alpha were applied to test the reliability of the data collected. The mean values of both the halves were above the average (mean of first half = 3.95, mean of second half = 3.69). The coefficients of reliability show very high values (alpha for first part =.947, alpha for second part = .939, correlation between the forms =.727, Guttman Splithalf = .839, Equal Length Spearman Brown =.842, Unequal Length Spearman Brown = .842) signifying the reliability of the data collected.

Further, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy has proven very good as the 7 dimensions constituting JS have generated values between 0.66 to .92. The Eigen values have also come between 1.88 – 4.62 for the 16 factors extracted through factor analysis. The total variance explained (V.E) by seven sub-scales ranged between 62 to 82 percent, which proved the construct validity. Face and content validity was proved through internal check ups. The positive correlation matrix between the different items has also proven the convergent validity.


The score for degree of JS enjoyed by teachers is 3.74, which is above the average on five point scale. JS is a multidimensional phenomenon and to measure overall degree of JS, the satisfaction obtained from all the dimensions was calculated separately which is as under:

Attitude Towards Job or Work Itself

After factor analysis the mean satisfaction secured from four factor of job itself namely work, idealness, autonomy and job rules came to 4.20. Near about 79 percent respondents found their profession as ideal one (t value= -.374 at .709 significance level) and 82 percent agreed with the aspect of autonomy in their job (t value .462 at .645 sig. level) Although the teachers are not happy with rules and regulation aspect, only 15 percent strongly voted for the appropriateness of service rules (t value=.994 at .322 sig. level), still most of them (97%) enjoy the element of job security. Hence, the element of job security keeps the teachers intact with their present jobs as only 6 percent desired to change their profession.

The psychological phenomenon of desire to join the profession also adds up to the satisfaction at 88 percent. The coefficient of correlation (r) and coefficient of determination (r2) between job itself and JS has arrived at .867 and .750 respectively. Job autonomy, enrichment, creativity, appropriacy, sense of achievement, proper workload, and feeling of freshness are some of the elements of job that account for maximum job satisfaction of university academicians. All these facts and figures are indicative of strong relationship between elements of job and satisfaction of university teachers which is in line with earlier research by Smerek and Peterson (2007) and Hackman & Oldham (1976). Thus, the first hypothesis stands accepted.

Attitude Towards Leader (H.O.D)

The factorial mean for this dimension was 3.59. About 27 percent teachers pointed at their H.O.D’s habit of getting things done according to their own will which adds to their dissatisfaction, 18 percent were indifferent towards this and 55 percent did not agree with it (t value 1.41 at .161 sig. level). Positive attributes viz., good administration, appreciating the subordinates, impartiality etc. have added to the satisfaction of the university teachers. It indicates that positive attributes and behaviour of the leader heightens the degree of satisfaction of his subordinates. The value of r and adjusted r2 for this dimension has come to .391 and .146 respectively revealing a positive association between attitude of the superior and JS of the teachers , which is in line with research by Sharma and Jyoti (2006) who found that guiding approach of superiors towards their subordinates adds up to the job satisfaction. So, the second hypothesis is also accepted.

Attitude Towards Colleagues

Hawthrone experiments have shown that man is not mere an economic tool, he has emotions and presence of other people at work place makes job more interesting. The mean satisfaction drawn from this dimension by the university teachers came to 3.52, which is minimum as compared to satisfaction drawn from other dimensions of satisfaction (Table 1). About 56 percent teachers reported that there is policy of groupism in their departments (mean=2.5, t value .551 at .583 sig. level). There are very less family interactions amongst the colleagues as only 10 percent agreed with this statement (mean= 2.38. t value -.362 at .718 sig. level). The element of team work is also lacking (mean= 3.30, t value 1.106 at .718 sig level). The analysis of this dimension reveals that stimulating, friendly and helping attitude of colleagues adds to the satisfaction (Winter and Saros, 2002) and policy of groupism, lack of team spirit and interrelationships leads to dissatisfaction (Ishawara and Laxmana, 2008; Sharma and Jyoti, 2005). The values of r and r2 have arrived at .341 and .109 respectively indicating a positive relation between colleagues and JS. Thus, the hypothesis that there is positive relationship between co-workers attitude and job satisfaction is accepted.

Attitude Towards Promotion & Recognition

The mean satisfaction secured from this facet of JS arrived at 3.70. Teachers (28%) viewed that promotions don’t happen at right time but mostly (63%) agreed that it is done on merit basis. They also revealed (24%) recognition does not come in the form of financial rewards but they (65%) agreed that it comes in the form of appreciation. The positive aspect of this facet is that 86 percent feel that this profession gives them recognition in the society also (Mean=4.18).

The value of r and adjusted r2 came to .467 (sig.

Attitude Towards Students

The mean of the two factors under this dimension namely literary aspects and negative behaviour of the students is 3.94. Near about 91% teachers revealed that students don’t insult the teachers and they are eager to consult library as well as interact with faculty members (mean= 3.89, t value -1.598 at .113 sig. level) which is very satisfying feature of this dimension. The r and r2 values have arrived at .354 (Sig.

Attitude Towards Pay and Financial Aspects

The mean satisfaction obtained from this dimension is 3.65 from two factors namely appropriateness of pay and monetary assistance. Only 28 percent teachers strongly agreed that their pay is appropriate (t value 1.23 at .221 sig. level) and approximately 63 percent did not find retirement benefits adequate (t value 2.731 at .007 sig. level) but still they were not ready to change the profession on the same pay. This analysis indicates that despite being less satisfied with pay and rewards mechanism teachers are not ready to change the profession due job security provided to them. The coefficient of correlation (r) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for this dimension was .530 (Sig.

Attitude Towards Physical Environment

The satisfaction secured from this aspect is 3.70. Most of the teachers (79%) agreed with proper light in the class rooms and staff rooms. About 68 percent agreed to proper infrastructure facilities. On the whole (83%) teachers are satisfied with their physical environment (Mean=3.79). The correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination has come to .365 (Sig.

Calculation of overall JS lead to age-wise, gender-wise, length-wise (job experience), status-wise (marital and designation) analysis of job satisfaction. The details of findings are discussed as under:

Age-Wise Analysis of Job Satisfaction

Age wise analysis of job satisfaction revealed insignificant coefficient of correlation between the two at .086, indicating further lack of linear relationship between age and job satisfaction of an employee. The results are identical with the previous research (Sharma and Jyoti, 2004, 2006; Amoran et al., 2005). Few of the previous researches (Leary 2000) have reported a cyclical relationship between the two. So, an attempt has been made in this direction also. To prove this, the class intervals of age have been made and accordingly mean job satisfaction obtained by teachers in each group has been calculated. The results, thus, obtained revealed a curvilinear pattern (Fig. 2). The level of job satisfaction obtained by the academicians is above average in all the age groups. It is least during initial years (20-25) and maximum during 56-60 years. After initial years the level of job satisfaction increases and remains almost constant till 45 years and then it decreases during 46-50 years after that it again starts increasing and is maximum during 56-60 years. The mean satisfaction scores were found to be significantly different (Table 3). The above analysis shows that satisfaction level varies for different age groups and it is maximum during last years of service. Hence, the hypothesis that relationship between age and job satisfaction is non-linear is accepted (Chandriah et al, 2007; Pickett and Sevastoss, 2003).

Length of Employment( Job Experience) and Job Satisfaction

The study revealed insignificant coefficient of correlation between length of employment and job satisfaction at .081, indicating lack of linear relationship between two. So, an attempt was made to check for cyclical or curvilinear relation. To prove this, the class intervals of total service have been made and accordingly mean job satisfaction obtained by teachers in each group has been calculated. The results, thus, obtained reveal a cyclical pattern (Table 4).

The level of job satisfaction obtained in the initial years of job experience (1-5) is more and afterward it starts declining and is minimum during 16-20 years of service. In next few years it starts increasing and is maximum during 21-25 and 31-35 years. This shows that job satisfaction is cyclical in relation to length of employment. Application of One-Way ANOVA Test revealed that the mean difference in satisfaction level is significant (Table 5). As far as kind of relation between length of employment and job satisfaction is concerned, the findings disclose a non-linear relation between the two, hence, the hypothesis that job satisfaction increases with length of employment stands rejected.

Although the employees with maximum service are highly satisfied teachers as they have achieved serenity in work and are confident in their ability to teach and handle tasks that their work requires (Brunetti, 2001) but relationship is not linear. The findings are in line with Lewis (1982) and against Jenning (1999) and Reudavey, Ling & Dickie (2003), who did not find any relationship between the two.

Level of Education and Job Satisfaction

Previous researches have shown that as the level of academic qualification increases, the level of job satisfaction enjoyed by an individual also increases and the respondents’ education background is of substantial importance in affecting job satisfaction (Metle, 2001, Glenn and Weaver, 1982). The results of the present study revealed that satisfaction level increases with an increase in the level of education (Table 6) and the difference is significant (F 2.404, Sig. = 0.05). The step-wise regression analysis revealed standardised beta coefficient at 0.100 (t 2.077, Sig.

Designation-wise Job Satisfaction

Higher designation (occupation level) leads to higher job satisfaction (Probe, 1971) has been proved in this study. The degree of job satisfaction enjoyed by a professor is greater than that of a lecturer or reader but the relation is not linear because the level of job satisfaction secured by a reader is less than that of a lecturer (Table 7). The mean difference was found to be significant because the level of significance is

Gender Wise Analysis of Job Satisfaction

The proportion of male and female respondents was 3:2. Gender wise analysis of job satisfaction revealed that the female teachers are more satisfied (3.88) than the male teachers (3.65). The difference was found to be significant when subjected to test of variance (Table 10), so the hypothesis that female teachers are more satisfied is accepted.

The reason for female teachers being more satisfied can be attributed to low expectation about job status among the female teachers as compared to the male teachers. Moreover the female teachers (90 per cent) like this profession due to nature and sociocultural value of teaching profession. Clark (1997) concluded that ‘women’s higher job satisfaction does not reflect that their jobs are unobservedly better than men’s, but perhaps because their jobs have been so much worse in the past, they have lower expectations’.

Although the analysis cannot rule out other possible explanations for this trend in women’s job satisfaction, it supports the prediction made by Clark (1997).

Marital Status and Job Satisfaction

The analysis of the degree of job satisfaction of the married (91 per cent) and unmarried (9 per cent) revealed that the mean level of job satisfaction secured by the married teachers (3.77

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