Potential Renewable Energy Sources for Kuwait
Kuwait ‘s solution to supplying enforcement to the current grid capacity and dependability is by researching the assorted available options of renewable energy. Some of the major renewable signifiers of energy being utilised all over the universe include solar, geothermic, air current and hydro energy. Based on the state ‘s climatic conditions, the possible beginnings of energy available for Kuwait are as follows.
A cardinal beginning of energy that Kuwait could use is solar energy. Solar energy involves change overing the freely available and abundant sunshine to electrical power. The state experiences high temperatures and really cheery yearss between June and September ( Salam & A ; Mazrooei, 2007 ) . Kuwait can therefore comfortably prolong solar power production throughout the summer.
Solar as a signifier of energy can be looked at from two angles: thermal-where solar energy is used for warming and photovoltaic ( PV ) which involves solar energy being used for power production.
The first signifier of energy involves change overing the heat from the Sun into electricity, which is used in places for H2O warming and desalinization. Use in this manner would ensue in much economy in footings of outgo on energy. This signifier of energy can be used to provide for all family energy demands. It can besides be used in street lighting every bit good as in industries for nutrient production. It requires small cost to put up and keep a solar energy system in your house. Apart from this being a cheaper option, it is environmental friendly in that it does non breathe any harmful gases.
The 2nd option of using sunshine, photovoltaic, would necessitate more complex system put in topographic point. This option is in fact under consideration by the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC ) to be implemented in Kuwait. Plans are underway to put $ 3.6 billion in Kuwait entirely to accomplish photovoltaic energy in the state ( Alnaser 2008 ) . Using solar energy is expected to cut down the part of Kuwait to the universe ‘s emanation of Carbon Monoxide which presently stands at about 0.2 % ( Alnaser, 2008 ) . Alnaser ( 2008 ) has farther argued that globally, there has been an mean addition of 40 % in footings of the volumes of energy produced from solar. There is still more room for betterment because the sum of energy produced in a individual twenty-four hours is adequate to prolong life for old ages.
Solar as a beginning of energy has a major defect in that it is susceptible to break and therefore non stable ( ABB, 2011 ) . The supply may be low during the cloudy and showery yearss. The power produced may therefore non be efficient and dependable for critical utilizations such as in production industries. Progresss in engineering should nevertheless be able to work out this job in future. A more complex system that is able to hive away the solar energy and giving the user the control of the units being consumed is being explored. ABB ( 2011 ) has explained how lithium-ion batteries can be integrated with solar energy to supply back up during low production periods.
Previous efforts by the Kuwait authorities to ship on solar energy undertaking were thwarted by sand storm and the predominating big sum of dust on possible tapping countries. The authorities has at times appeared non to be excessively enthusiastic to the thought as it “fails to give fiscal inducements to those willing to prosecute such projects.” ( Hashem, 2011 ) .
There is a renewed attempt by the state ‘s authorities to put in researching the solar energy options. Recently, the state ‘s Chamber of Commerce and Industry, ( KCCI ) , revealed a government-lead undertaking that would be $ 120bn. The undertaking is to be implemented within the following five old ages. It involves the authorities encompassing solar energy as portion of its development programs. ( Hashem, 2011 ) .
The authorities has besides shown involvements by partnering with other states ‘ authoritiess to implement solar undertakings all over the state. Fortune CT from UK and Toyota T Suchu Corporation from Japan are some of the international companies actively take parting in nidation of solar energy in different parts in Kuwait.
Solar energy has small consequence on the environments as non gases are emitted. The costs of geting a solar system are besides cheaper compared to geothermal and hydro. Keeping the system costs about nil as no fuel is used.
Wind energy involves using the strength of air current to travel big treadmills which in bend rotate to bring forth power. Just like solar energy, this signifier of energy is renewable and has small injury to the environment. Already, states like Brazil are using this signifier of energy ABB ( 2011 ) . Brazil utilizes the offshore air current to bring forth energy which is so transmitted in the normal power lines for 100s of kilometres. States with similar conditions forms including North African and other Middle East states are in the procedure of implementing air current power usage. It is projected that in old ages to come, weave energy will be used to bring forth about 12 % the planetary energy and in the procedure a important alternate energy beginning in the coming old ages ( Alnaser, 2008 ) .
Kuwait ‘s air current velocity is above the 1400 per hr threshold which is considered as the lower limit air current velocity that can prolong economically feasible air current production. Salam & A ; Mazrooei ( 2007 ) have noted that in recent old ages, Kuwait has been sing increasing air current velocities. There has been an addition of wind velocities of up to 0.21 ms-1 between 1999 and 2004. The state could look at the positive side of this consequence. Windmills could be set up at strategic topographic points to assist pin down the air current energy and change over it to electrical energy. Alnaser ( 2008 ) has projected that Kuwait would be bring forthing a important sum of air current and solar energy by the twelvemonth 2015.
For Kuwait to accomplish this signifier of energy, a complex system made up of several air current turbines will hold to be put in topographic point at strategic countries. An ideal country would be on the sea shore to capitalise on the sea zephyr common in such topographic points. The acquisition of these turbines every bit good as puting up the workss will be rather a batch. The authorities has to therefore supply some support or offer incentive to private investor who may be willing to set about the venture.
Wind programs have besides been known to hold a negative consequence on the wildlife in the environing country particularly the birds. The building sites of air current power workss require an country that is free from wind obstructor. With edifices built across the state, happening such a topographic point may be a bit difficult. Economically sustainable production of air current power requires that there be blowy conditions throughout which might non ever be the instance.
Geothermal energy involves using the heat on the land to give energy. Kuwait has the potency of making geothermic energy that is yet to be to the full exploited. Plans are underway to increase this option of energy coevals. The Kuwait authorities has given a spell in front to contractor to build a H2O works, Al-Zour North power works that is expected to bring forth about 4,800 megawatts of power ( Izzak, 2010 ) . The authorities is besides be aftering to increase production in bing workss by replacing old systems with more efficient 1s. Izzak, ( 2010 ) has explained that the authorities of Kuwait intends to replace about 18 per centum of the transformers presently being used with more efficient 1s.
Other Countries in the Middle East have besides been dallying with the thought of geothermic energy. In UAE for illustration, Masdar, a pro environment preservation company has been transporting trials on how to implement a geothermic undertaking in Abu Dhabi since 2009. The execution was expected to get down instantly after the testing.
A major set vaulting horse to geothermal energy is that the procedure is a bit expensive to implement every bit compared to implementing solar energy. This is because geothermic electricity coevals depends on H2O ; yet this H2O has to be gotten through desalinization of saltwater, which is a dearly-won procedure. Initial set up of the works is besides dearly-won. Another job is that Kuwait is rather hot. Achieving the geothermic energy requires some signifier of chilling. This chilling is rather impossible to accomplish without breathing harmful gases to the environment.
The deepnesss at which the hot stones are located vary from topographic point to topographic point. Geologists have to make thorough analyze to set up such facts and besides to measure whether such a undertaking is economically executable in Kuwait. Once a geothermal works is up and running, care and running costs are comparatively low.
Hydroelectric power productions involve big volumes of high force per unit area H2O being used to turn big turbines to bring forth energy. Kuwait experiences a low sum of rainfall with the mean being about 115 millimeters ( Salam & A ; Mazrooei, 2007 ) . The state is by and large dry with few rivers. For the state to prolong an economical degree of hydroelectric energy production, it must use other beginnings: chiefly saltwater. For this to go on, a fuel devouring procedure of salination has to be carried out which might be expensive to set about.
Merely like the other aforementioned options, Hydro works set up requires a batch of resources to put up. Such a undertaking would therefore require substantial support from either the authorities or private sector. This signifier of energy would necessitate edifice of dike. This would ensue in interfering with the wildlife bing in the rivers every bit good as the environing country.
Another possible beginning of renewable energy is bio fuel. This is a sort of fuel that is obtained from biomass. The energy produced can be used for warming and lighting in the rural countries. It can be besides used for cooking at both rural and urban scene.
Bio Fuel energy offers the merely alternate to fossil fuel as a renewable C based beginning of fuel that exist is important measure ( Klass, 2004 ) . Klass, ( 2004 ) has argued that the degrees of natural gas would non be sufficient to prolong the demand during the beginning of the twenty-first century. Such a state of affairs would coerce the universe to look elsewhere for their energy supply. This could necessitate the stakeholders in the sector to switch to undeveloped biomass as the alternate beginning of energy.
Kuwait can place herself for such an contingency by puting in the relevant biomass transition engineerings. The state could, for case, put in power workss which use wood energy which is burned to bring forth steam. This steam is in bend channeled to turbines to bring forth energy.
To prolong this manner of energy production, there requires a sufficient supply of biomass. Engendering workss that produce high sum of biomass can accomplish this. Klass, ( 2004 ) has identified peculiar works species that can accomplish aid achive this. Such workss include the alone herbaceous biomass workss and other intercrossed vegetations, which he refers to as ‘energy workss ‘ . Klass, ( 2004 ) has explained a manner of guaranting a changeless supply of biomass for biofuel. This is by guaranting that a new growing of biomass will readily come up in topographic point of the biomass collected for energy production.
Bio fuel usage has an extra advantage in that it has does non foul the environment and displaces the usage of fuel. When used in concurrence with coal or wood, bio fuel reduces the sum of harmful gasses released to the environment. Bio fuel usage could besides cut down the rate at which dodo fuel is being depleted from Earth.
Closely related to bio fuel is usage of ethyl alcohol. This ethyl alcohol as gotten from workss such as sugar cane, wheat and maize and can be used for fueling vehicles. Puting up workss for ethyl alcohol harvest home is comparatively inexpensive. However, acquiring a changeless supply of ethanol bring forthing workss would necessitate a considerable resource allotment. The procedure of production of energy is besides quit dearly-won, as it requires fuel. The fuel used in bring forthing ethyl alcohol may besides ensue in production of gases, which may foul the environment.
The potency is at that place for Kuwait to research other option of energy production. The implicit in factor in all these options is some kind of support for research every bit good as initial set up. The authorities of Kuwait can make this either straight or by offering fiscal inducement. Exhaustive cost-benefit analysis is besides necessary to set up the viability of each option. Any option that Kuwait takes would an of import enforcement to the current grid capacity which is dominated by natural gas and oil.
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