A Health Problem The diabetes is a disease which is characterized by the absence of insulin properly on the body. Also, the name diabetes has its origin in ancient Greece and Rome, and diabetes means “sweet”. In addition, this disease has been around the history of human beings for thousands of years. For example, there are manuscripts in Egyptian before of Christ that described to people to urinate frequently, and in Asia some doctors described people who suffered tiredness, skin boils and thirst.
Recently, the diabetes has been grouped into three types which are type1 occurs when pancreas produces little or no insulin , type 2 is when the body becomes resistant to insulin or produces not enough blood sugar level, and gestational is in women who develop high blood sugar during pregnancy. Meanwhile, according to National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), in Its National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011 (NDFS), based on data released by The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) in year 2011, diabetes affects 25. million people 8. 3% of the U. S population and this disease has became in the seventh cause of death in the United States. Moreover, based on information from National Business Coalition on Health (NBCH) , in its Action Brief (AB) on February 2012, the diabetes expenses were of 174 billion annually in direct medical and indirect costs which had estimated for year 2007 in the United States.
In simpler terms, the diabetes has became in serious health problem that produces diverse expenses to diabetics ,so an away to avoid expenses derived of this disease is research what factors can produce diabetes?. Finally, the diabetes produces high medical expenditures for hospital, physician, and prescription medicines to treat diabetes which is a disease caused for three serious disorders are related to obesity, genetic, and stress.
First, the most common cause of diabetes is obesity which is related to physical inactivity, eating disorders, and genetic. Next, obesity is excess body fat which is commonly measured through mass index which is a ratio of body weight to height, so people are considered obese when their mass index is of 30 or higher ( based on information from National Institutes of Health (NIH), in its Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults ( CGIETOOA) in year 1998) .
Also, obesity is serious factor of risk for people because they are more susceptible to develop type 2 diabetes in which the body produces some but not enough insulin or is resistant to insulin; therefore, type 2 diabetes is associated to lack of physical activity. In other words, physical actives produce general health benefits such as blood sugar and pressure properly for adults and children because it is any form of exercise or movement such as household chores, yard work, walking, running, basketballs, or other sports.
Moreover, insulin resistance has observed metabolic abnormalities which are produced for morbidity, so obese subjects have this characteristic of insulin resistance because they lack of physical activities. In the second place, obesity is connect to diet improperly that has high levels of calories more than the body can metabolize, and this type of eating disorders has been result of fast food. In particular, people who eat more calories which are acquired through fast food or unhealthy food suffer of overweight.
Too, overweight is characterized for abdominal fat that people can observe in increasing size of waist, hips, and deformation the body in specific areas. Due to, eating disorders produce overweight the metabolic body start to suffer changes that affected to insulin production because overeating produces a fighting into insulin production, so the body does not use insulin well and the result is unbalance in blood sugar level and people become in diabetics. Third, genetic frequently produce obesity that develops diabetes.
In this case, genetic is derived from parents or close relatives, so children are who suffers lineal consequences from obesity because it generally occurs in first year of life. Mainly, children are diagnostic diabetics because their bodies develop an insulin resistance or the pancreas does not produce insulin. As well, rare illnesses produce obesity as hypothyroidism which is disease produced abnormality of thyroid gland that does not produce quantities of hormone properly, among others.
Finally, obesity is a cause of diabetes, but obesity generally develops type 2 diabetes which has a treatment through pills, diet and exercise, and this type of diabetes produce a codependency to pills. Typically, codependency to medicaments has raised abruptly, so this produce high expenditure in prescription medicines. Moreover, if population does not deplete the tendency of this disease, the expenses for effects of diabetes as hospital and physician too could continue incrementing. In effect, prescription medicines to treat diabetes increased 85. percent in the period of 1996 to 2003 (Olin, Gary 2006). To conclude, obesity that is risk factor for diabetes can avoid it through little changes in diet and style life more dynamic, so these little changes give positive effect economic and healthy. Second, the production of blood sugar levels is produced for genetic which is linked to factors as family history, racial and ethnic groups, metabolic reaction on diet , and rare gene. In addition, family history has an important connection with diabetes because this disease can be transmitted through of genes.
In other words, diabetes has produced for a genetically disorder, so children born with diabetes because they have first degree relatives which are diabetics. Moreover, this characteristic is type1 diabetes in where the pancreas produces little or no insulin, so type 1 diabetics are insulin dependent and they daily need insulin shots to live. Furthermore, this type diabetes occurs in children, adolescents and adults, and type 1 diabetes is the most severe form of this disease in which people suffer serious complications of health as amputations, dialysis, diabetic comas, among others.
Consequently, diabetics who suffer type 1 have more expenditure of hospital and treatment because their body develops complex situations of health. Next, racial and ethnic groups has a genetic predisposition diabetes, so natives and diverse tribes as American and Australian have people who suffer of diabetes. For example, some investigation have find that tribes in Arizona Pima and Papago their ethnic populations have the highest incidence of diabetes in the world, Seri a tribe in Mexico has suffered diabetes, and the Aborigines in Australia have developed diabetes (Nabhan, Gary Paul, 2004).
In particular, ethnic groups , indigenous, native Americans, aborigines have involved diabetes (Nabhan, Gary Paul, 2004). Besides, the relation between racial and ethnic groups who has developed diabetes is caused for metabolic reaction on diet that has changed abruptly because their native food was plants which slow sugar and water loss qualities, so their metabolisms have adapted over time to the presence desert food.
As a result, racial and ethic groups have changed native food by fast food, so the incidence of diabetes skyrocketed with heart disease and high cholesterol due to the metabolic reaction of these racial groups is different genetically. Another, factor is linked to appear of diabetes is particular gene called thrifty gene that indigenous hunter and gatherers have presumed to maintain as an adaptation to a feast –famine existence, so this thrifty gene has attributed the difference in blood insulin (Originally hypothesized by Neel, James in 1962).
Subsequently, syndrome X (Nabhan, Gary Paul, 2004). has linked to genetic as responsible of appears diabetes, so racial and ethnic groups has increased risk of diabetes because they have access to groceries, alcohol and cigarettes and these groups expressed a cluster of conditions as high blood pressure, high triglycerides, cholesterol and obesity. Finally, ethnic groups have increased their predisposition of diabetes, and this produce more medical expenses to families who have relatives with diabetes.
Finally, levels of blood sugar are lead to stress that is related to endocrine system, psychological aspects, and socioeconomic aspects. First, stress which is the state manifested by reaction that induced changes in biological system produces blood sugar improperly, and the endocrine system includes the master glands which are part of pancreas concerned with sugar metabolism. Second, an important part is the reaction of hypothalamus that is part of brain, so when a person is under physical or emotional stress its cerebral cortex sends messages at the hypothalamus.
Then, hypothalamus produces releasing factors and these stimulate a part called the pituitary that secrete Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) outer part of adrenal gland, in turn releases the glucocorticoid hormones that is blood and sugar raising, and TTH the thyroid gland secrete other substances. Consequently, ACTH and TTH thus cooperate in preparing the body to meet challenge of stress by making sugar available for cellular metabolism by increasing the metabolic rate of the cells.
Moreover, a person that exposed a serious levels of stress repeats this process before mentioned sometimes, and this subject is exposed high blood sugar during this time so this person can develop diabetes, occasionally. Another aspect that is linked to stress is psychological that occurs when people are exposed to emotional circumstances, so diabetes appears when significant changes occurred in a person’s life .
For example, adolescents who have attitudes and patterns of life adjustment, so they acquired the diabetes in middle age because a prominent though often suppressed of repressed conviction of having been starved of maternal love; in some cases caused for death of mother or a divorce. Inevitably, adolescents substitute calories for emotional nourishment, and teenagers with this emotional deprivation acquire a simulation of starvation that contributes a process of diabetes.
Clearly, adolescents disturb their metabolism, so they involve in problem of obesity because adolescents suffer of night eating that only is one expression of emotional state; in these cases (Wolff, Harol G. in 1968) the therapy of obesity with problems of life adjustment is needed for releasing of depression. As well, socioeconomic aspects of stress have been incidents of diabetes, and people, who are involved in stressed situation because their low income and economic insecurity, are more predispose to illness.
To illustrate, people that cope with urban poverty their life expectancy is less because they suffer chronic illness as heart, asthma, and diabetes. Furthermore, urban poverty is linked to inferior education, racial discrimination, overcrowding, and crimes, among others; all these are factors stressors that affect the emotional balance of body, and these stressors become a chronic condition for residents. Consequently, stress is reaction of body when residents are exposed or involved to abnormal conditions which are ecological, psychological, social, biological, socioeconomics, genetic, among others.
As a result, illnesses that are caused by stress as diabetes have incremented expenditure attributable to prescription medicines, hospitalization, medical appointments, and virtually diabetes caused for stress require a complex treatment physical and psychological for its management properly. On the whole, families could suffer financial problems by diabetes because this disease produces medical events. In short, diabetes is a chronic disease that affects insulin production of body, and the most common causes of this illness are obesity, predisposition genetic, and high or abnormal levels of stress.
Also, statistical data show high expenditures attributable to diabetes in United States mainly for hospitalization, medication, and physician support in managing this disease. In addition, obesity and the stress that are two of the three most common causes of diabetes will avoid through simple methods or routine that residents add to style life. For example, residents will avoid eating fast food and replace for health food, or they will try to practice sports. Moreover, citizens will look for method or technique that combats to stress properly.
On the other hand, predisposition genetic that is one cause of diabetes will result complex situation, but this risk factor will be managing through of diagnostic pre-diabetes. In other words, financial costs will be regularized or controlled when communities and residents join and realize health programs about prevention and control of diabetes. Inevitably, this problematic situation requires of teamwork, and control of diabetes will reflect in billon dollars. Finally, population will be awareness that serious disease called diabetes has preventable.
Work Cited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates andgeneral information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011”. Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. “Economic Costs Of Diabetes In The U. S. In 2007. ” Diabetes Care 31. 3 (2008): 596-615. MEDLINE. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. Gordo, James S. Stress Management. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2001. pp. 13-52 Leahy Jack L. , Nathaniel G. Clark, and William T. Cefalu.
Medical Management Of Diabetes Mellitus. M. Dekker, 2000. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 1 Apr. 2012. Liberatore, Stephanie. ”Q: what causes diabetes, and how does it affect a person’s health? ” The Science teacher 76. 6 (2009):68. General OneFile. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. Nabhan, Gary Paul. Why Some Like It Hot: food, genes, and cultural diversity. United Stated of America: Island Press, 2004. pp. 163-185 Olin, G. Proportion and Medical Expenditures of Adults Being Treated for Diabetes, 1996 and 2003.
Statistical Brief #146. October 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,Rockville, Md. http:/www. meps. ahrq. gov/mepsweb/data-files/publications/st146. pdf Paul, Tim Dall, and Plamen Nikolov. “Economic Costs Of Diabetes In The US In 2002. ” Diabetes Care 26. 3 (2003): 917-932. MEDLINE. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. Peacock, Judith. “Chapter #1: What Is Diabetes?. ” Diabetes (0-7368-0277-0). 4. Capstone Press, 2000. Health Source – Consumer Edition. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. Wollff, Harold G. Stress and Disease. Washington: Charles C Thomas, 1968. pp. 92-97
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