Marketing research is one respect of marketing activities. Research is pointed to the plan, plot before making policy for every thing or the activity and design the marketing activity specially. Russert (1974) introduced that the multi-national company was the main competitors of local company. They will fight with the local company in the same stage. Over all, the multi-national company seems to be stronger in the war. Most of them achieved success, and is expanding quickly with high speed. What help them to succeed? In one word, it is the Research competition ability help to realize their expanding strategy. The brand is the power. Compared with the multi-national companies, the brand competition ability is the most weakness of local company. Through the study of the successful marketing research of Coca-cola, this article is not talking about the single thing and the single industry, it hopes people realized that it is not a day to establish a brand only by the quality, service and together with the advertisement.
The marketing work of Coca-cola is so good and it has great advantage with the domestic beverage enterprises, where is the secret? Besides, focus on the Coca-cola in one of developing country’s development course, analysis the environment of Coca-cola marketing research, the macroscopic environment and industrial environment of Coca-cola. In the meantime, people must focus on the analysis of Coca-cola in local’s marketing concrete strategy.
Some research (Lieberson, 1992) introduce that each time company employ a new worker, chief will cultivate the new worker the primarily marketing work consciousness and habits. If their old companies used to set down in the company and using telephone to do business the company do not welcome this new worker.
Product Positioning. Coca-cola synthesizes the different opinion of different level human beings and it finds its beverage products belong to cool and refreshing type, the scale of suitable space and time is big. It belongs to excited type and suitable for each age, every occupational group and various social life occasions. People first want to buy the Coca-cola is belongs to compulsive purchase. If this left a good habit people will repeat purchase it. After deepen the brand, people become selective, immobility and repeat purchase this product. Seasonal effect will not influence entertainment, family, school and corporation too much.
1. Walk into the community. Branch Coca-cola sales company or office is build, company will hire students or professional investigation company to do investigation work, then the business representatives will take over this work. The marketing office of Coca-cola receives a large scale map in one city, investigators separately the commercial block by the density and walk deeply into the community. They went to supermarkets, hotels, small stores, little hotels, even the school, authorities, hospitals, stations and entertainments, they go to all possible places that can be sales Coca-cola products and point investigate object and survey results, mark the questionnaires records and submit this to company.
2. Questionnaire Design. Yin (2003) take a research that the contents of questionnaire design include name of point-of-scale, address, scale, characteristic, number of visitors and marketing method, it also includes several sales methods that includes several small projects. In order to reduce the people who cannot fit for the question and workers cannot obtain information, the executor considers some loosen demands that the name and related contents such as the phone number, quantity of sales.
3. Collect data. First the company asks civil affairs or planning government department to help collect some large scale map as a basic reference implementation. Second some analysis (Hedstrom, 1998) that company must collect some data about the density of some community and the incomes of each person from the government statistics department before the questionnaire begin. It is valid 2 years for every survey data. Besides, they also surf the Internet and to learn the local custom, lifestyle or the social factors involved.
George and Mckeown (1985) introduce a method that each time the company will division the market level and selects a key point. They analysis the collect data and decided the key point through the purchasing power, marketing ability, market potential composite index. For example, if a branch company finds over 8000 beverage point of sales, they analyses and decided 2500 of them as a key point, the executor ask all the marketing workers conquered this places. Determine a suitable goods face up a define place. According to different areas, different sales place and different consumer groups, the company provide large bottle or small bottle, glass or plastic bottle or canned, use tuning machine or equipped frozen, etc.
Finnegan (1996) was said according to the point selling number, population density, purchasing power and other factors of target market, the company calculates the potential largest market for each area, match this potential target with occupied sales points and contrast the selling, make the market developing tasks from general to all single point area. Each branch company must devices the responsibility and assigns the resource. For example, one of branch Coca-cola Company’s sales regional is limit in this province. The company divides the province into two sales areas, east and west. And set a two respectively center in each of sales areas. Each sales area is divided into 12 sales pieces and set up the office. Each sales piece segment again until designate special persons to take charge one piece. The executor decided all business units and the salesman prohibit across piece or area to sale.
Nelson (Bernard, 2001) was said: “Qualitative research is an interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and sometimes counterdisciplinary field. It crosses the humanities and the social and physical sciences. Qualitative research is many things at the same time. It is multiparadigmatic in focus. Its practitioners are sensitive to the value of the multimethod approach. They are committed to the naturalistic perspective, and to the interpretative understanding of human experience. At the same time, the field is inherently political and shaped by multiple ethical and political positions.” Campbell, and Russo (2001) indicated two methods: First the company takes a face to face strategy and asks some detail question about the Coca-cola. It collects some different question come from different people. Second the company built a website online and many people can submit their opinion about the taste, flavor, appear and other things about Coca-cola.
Bernard (2001) was said quantitative research is used to denote approaches which are supported by a set of hypotheses; it resorts to applying the model of science of natural world to study the social world. From the above analysis the company sets questionnaires. Besides, the company can set self-administered questionnaires that the company just asks several question and the interviewer will write want they want, it will makes people think aloud. In addition, the company will combine this research and built omnibus surveys and panels, many people will participate in the group and speak their opinion about Coca-cola. In the meantime, the company also employs local people as workers. Where the Coca-cola’s network extend, where the executor choose their employees. The chief think local salesman is familiar with a local business conditions that include blocks, shops, purchasing habits, it is make sales work of Coca-cola as quickly as possible walk into local environment. The influence of local salesman is large, their relatives will effected by local salesman’s work and provide help to expand the work.
Through analysis (Denzin, 1989), the primary research and secondary research have many things in common. Secondary research more often than not, proves to be a solid base on which to develop your own primary research. It plays the same role as research in general dose to your product launch, and should be seen as just as vital. However, it is feasible that you can find some research somewhere that corresponds to what you are trying to achieve but it will almost certainly require some tweaking, and will not necessarily be the people you wish to interrogate, the use of qualitative research designed by someone else will almost certainly make the target specialized away from your goals. Kirk and Miller (1986) were said that primary research is the most accurate way to research a market sector that it specific to the company and the company’s product. But it is more expensive, whether financially or on time. It also takes time for the questionnaire to be completed if the company does not have direct access to a ready panel. So neither type of research will take the company to their goal alone, however, a combination of the two will give the company all the information they need.
Rising in western marketing science and practice, its practice in new country’s localization has proved the marketing must have characteristic of individualization and practicality. As to company, marketing is an actual combat tool which solves the market and competition problem at first. Company’s marketing research is set up on the foundation of the marketing theory naturally. Manage an important branch studies as company in marketing theory, have already formed a serious of theory frameworks. Which type of research work is better? Using primary research alone, without first seeing what has or has not worked for other companies and possible missing out an important data from research that companies could not afford to perform themselves, is likely to lead to irrelevant questions or missed opportunities. At the same time, Patton (2002) said that relying solely on secondary research is likely to leave companies with answers that are vague or inappropriate to their specific audience. The two compliments each other well and when used in conjunction will give companies a well rounded and accurate portrayal of the needs and opinions of companies’ market sector.
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