Introduction To Safety And Hygiene Environmental Sciences Essay

Nowdays, requested for food safety facility is increasingly demanding in hospitality line. The food safety facility is availability of safe food improves the health of people and is also important basic for human right. Every day people will get ill from the they eat when prepare the food or cooking without contain a good food safety facility. Normally, people get ill or food poison is because the microorganisms including baterial, viruses and moulds in the food, leading to a whole host of unpleasant symptoms, such as stomach pains, diarrhoea and vomiting. Contamination is the undesired presence of harmful microorganisms or substances in food. Food can be contaminated by unhygienic practices in storage, handling and preparation, and may compromise food safety and palatability, example have a good safety facility for the user. If microorganisms are allowed to multiply, this will have the potential to cause disease if the food is eaten. So, people must understanding and knowledge about the food safety facility to concerned the health risks, for example, need to meet the increasing demands for hygiene requirements and scale for the facility. This is a significant public health burden that can be largely preventable. Not only for our healthy, food safe facility also give due emphasis to good hygienic practices to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Foodborne diseases result from eating foods that contain infectious or toxic substances. As per organization, there is also considerable variation in expertise and resource between the different agencies, and a conflict between the need to protect public health and obligations to facilitate trade or develop an industry or business sector. You need to be aware of these potential difficulties with the food control system. This session will introduce the principles of food safety facility and consist about of floor, temperature, restrooms, ventilation, lighting, personal hygienic, cooking, keep food, waste disposal and equipment. Also learn about food control, food inspection and supportive enforcement measures that can contribute to food hygiene and safety of facility.



About the flooring, as hospitality need to provide a hygienic flooring. The purpose of the hygienic flooring is to provide a healthy and environmentally friendly flooring choice for those who use it. Usually this type of flooring, helps resist mold and bacteria, but also reduces the amount of allergens can build, create better air quality. Others, the flooring must be clearning by daily with chemicals to reduce bacterial on the floor and require a smooth surface easy to clean up.


As temperature, to ensure that the time effective temperature control is critical to the safety and suitability of food. Such control, including the received time and temperature for the process cooking, cooling, storage, packing, distribution, food service reached. Normally, a room as like kitchen must be always maintan the temperature become moderate. Wherever cooking is open with fire shall be provide the equipment like chimney, exhaust fan or ventilation to reducing smoke and steam, also can reduce the high temperature of the room.


Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided to the food establishment, to commitment operate in a hygienic manner. Lighting must place appropriate protection, in order to ensure that the food is not damaged by pollution.


Ventilation is more important of the food safety facility it can process change or replace of any space in the indoor air quality, such like temperature control, supplemental oxygen, moisture, odor, smoke, heat, dust and air in the bacterial. Others, ventilation also can reduce activity of bacterial and also can obtain a protective effect like reduce food contamination by bacterial. So, all regarding of food safety ventilation shall be designed and constructed so that air can maintain circulation and air does not contaminate or affect the food.


For the restroom shall be separate from the food processing and service areas, which may not be a direct result of the food production, service and storage areas. In restroom must have implemented a system for keeping records of all action taken to address identified risk factors for food-borne disease. These records should be preserved for the establishment and in the inspection process.


As equipment must provide a display board mentioning do’s & don’ts for the workers should be put up inside a prominent place in the premise in English or in local language for everyone’s understanding. Display board also to ensure user have follow the instruction and understand how to use the equipment. As food safe facility, the owner must give training for the user to understanding the dangers from work equipment and how to handing the equipment like electrical equipment, fire prevention and other regarding for equipment. When the food process they will get injured any time if user use the equipment without any traning. Others, the equipment shall be have monthly inspection to ensure all the facility can be use without any damage, in addition it can extend life of the equipment. When need easily to maintanance and cleaning function as per its intended use, the eqiupment shall be such located, designed and fabricated, its also can facilitates a good hygiene practices inside the premise including monitoring and audit.

Washing of Raw Materials

The washed raw food, adequate facilities should be provided. All basins or other Facilities, used for washing food items must have sufficient heat and cold water supply. The water should be at least in the essence of drinking water. These facilities must be kept clean, Necessary to be disinfected. Used for washing a raw material of food flume should be maintained alone should not be used for washing dishes, or for any other purpose.

Personal Facilities

Personal facilities should include appropriate means appropriate washing and drying of hands before touching food materials including washbasins and supply hot water and separate lavatories of appropriate hygienic design. These facilities should be appropriate to the position, so that they do not open directly into the food processing, handling, or storage areas. Before user begin to perpare any food, make sure that user are using the utensils is clean. Clean worktops thoroughly and wash utensils with washing-up liquid and hot water, or use a dishwasher if user have one. Make sure user clean up any spilt food straight away. They should be made aware of the cleanliness requirement while handling food, if food processing without handled properly people fall ill and many died as a result of eating unsafe food.

Storage of Food

Proper storage of food reduces the risk of food poisoning. A well-stocked kitchen can be a lifesaver when it comes to pulling quick meals together and keeping our food intake healthy. To ensure your food is safe to eat, however, it is important to take proper care with how your food is stored. As storage of food has beware of the temperature danger zone because food poisoning bacterial grow and multiply fastest in the temperature danger zone between 5 C and 60 C. It is important to keep high-risk food out of this temperature zone. Other, some foods need to kept in the fridge to help stop baterial growing and the time limits for frozen foods are to maintain flavor and texture. It is also still safe to eat frozen foods that have been stored longer, example the storage of foods in fridge, meat, fish, fruit, and etc.


In conclusion, food safe facility is not just about maintaining a clean working environment, and non compliances can occur in any stage during the food handling process from receiving, storing, cooking, cooling and reheating, or serving. As a food safety the owner of restaurant or regarding the food processing shall be ensure a food-safe facility are in control and reduce the hazard of food poison. The food needs assessments were carried out in a professional way. A owner of restaurant they must give training and fully understanding the types of food and the conditions to prevent the growth of bacteria which can cause food poisoning for any employer and employee. In additional, provided the procedure and guideline for all restaurant to ensure food processing can provide the healthy food to the people and also provided the standard facility. So make sure all user implement adequate training, safety facility and monitoring procedures to keep working environment as safe as possible.


Anonymous, 6th January 2012, Socia, viewed on 6th July 2012,

Food Safety


The concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a system that helps food business operators look at how they handle food and introduces procedures to make sure the food produced is safe to eat. The HACCP system, which is science based and systematic, identifies specific hazards and measures for their control to ensure the safety of food. It is a HACCP which for focuses on keeping food in proper time and temperature zones and free of contamination, indentifies and controls potential problems in food handling before they can occur, evaluates and monitors each step in the entire food preparation process, works daily to provide feedback and eliminates or reduces risk of food borne illness. The HACCP is used for control risk and the hazard of food is biological, chemical, physical and allergenic. Biological is refer to organisms or organic matters produced by these organisms that are harmful to human healthy. These are include viruses, parasites, bacterial, fungi and protein. The harmful effects posed to human healthy by these biological hazards are mainly of three types infections, allergy and poisoning. A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. The Physical hazards are those substances which threaten a person physical safety. The most common types of physical hazards are raw ingredients, food packinging, building and equipment such as flahing paint, food handlers and the pets. As allergenic is a human immune system response to certain food. An allergenic reaction is triggered by a protein contained in a food. The type of food allergenic included milk, eggs, penuts, and fish. Allergenic symptoms are wheezing or breathing problems, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, rashes or sickness. To successfully carry out HACCP, food service operations will need to personalized HACCP plan. The plan is built around 7 principles. This chapter will presents an introduction and overview of the 7 principles of HACCP.


Principle 1 – Conduct a hazard analysis

As food safety hazard is any biological, chemical or physical properties may result in food for human consumption is unsafe. The analyze hazards to identify any hazardous biological, chemical, or physical property in raw materials and processing steps, and assessment of their tune, and may lead to the consumption of food insecurity. All possible food safety hazards that could cause a product to be unsafe for consumption, and the measures that can be taken to control those hazards. For example, at the food processing step of the cooking, one of the identified hazards due to insufficient cooking time or temperature of the survival of pathogens. In additional, hazard got 7 step of analysis is hazards, risk, flow of food, type of customers, type of food, suppliers, the size & type of operation.

Principle 2 – Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)

A CCP is a critical control point. It is a practice, preparation step, or procedure where a preventive measure or control can be applied. A CCP would prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. For example, a chicken arrives with salmonella. Cooking the chicken to an internal temperature of 170 F is a measured CCP and control measures are necessary to deal with the hazard of pathogens surviving the cooking process. Other is focus on time & temperature and need to provide standard operating procedures (SOP).

Principle 3 – Establish critical limits

The limit of the critical control point is to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable standards. Its maximum or minimum value, must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level of food safety hazards identified physical, biological or chemical hazards. For example, critical limits including products for cooking stage a lot of time and temperature. In addition shall be provide a food thermometer, tech employee or employer how to use them correctly and to ensure that employee use them on a regular basis.

Principle 4 – Establish a system to moniter control of the CCP

Monitering is a planned sequence of observations or measurement to assess whether under the control of the critical control point to produce an accurate record for future use verification. Monitoring HACCP system is very important. If have lost control of the trend, therefore, it can take action to regain control of the process before more than the limit, the monitor can warn the plant. For example, monitoring critical control points in cooking procedures, including internal temperature with a special thermometer. Other, employees must be involved in the process and understand the critical control point. Record temperatures, cold, hot, cooking, chilling at each stage.

Principle 5 – Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control

These monitoring establishing a critical limit deviation the action to be taken. The final rule requires a plant’s HACCP plan to determine the corrective measures to be taken and if user do not meet a critical limit. The purpose of the corrective action is to ensure that the deviation is not harmful to health or otherwise adulterated products into the commercial. For example, if the internal temperature did not reach the required corrective action would require that the product is further cooking. The cooking temperature can not be achieved, alternative corrective measures will be required to be held and destruction. Other is employees must be involved in the process and understand.

Principle 6 – Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively

Validation is the application of methods, procedures, testing, sampling and evaluation of monitoring, to determine whether the control measures of the critical control points being or has been run as expected. Verification activities to ensure that the company’s written HACCP plan monitoring and corrective action. Verify some examples at specified time interval the direct observation of the process of monitoring activities and corrective action monitoring instrument calibration. Other is keep record to prove the system is working effectively.

Principle 7 – Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application

HACCP process and monitoring results to establish a record for keeping system file. This can be any simple and fast system such as the printing of the temperature from which critical control point, employees can record your own standards compliant. For example, employees of the plant is responsible for monitoring the cooking critical control points to complete the record sheet of cooking. This table includes the date, start and the end time temperature and the signture of the employee. If deviations occur in the production process responsible for the details of the plant employees deviation logbook records.


Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a way to keep food safe because it is through the mobile catering servise processes. It is based on the concept of preventing foodborne disease and to ensure safe food. HACCP plan is a particular food servise the development of a written document food safety procedures to be followed. Also HACCP system must be kept up to date, make revisions when changes occur. A change may be needed when recipes, suppliers, storage, preparation, or equipment changes, or when corrective actions are not working and employees need continuous training. Developed using the seven principles of HACCP plan and specific menu, facilities and equipment for the food service process, For a specific food on the menu, it describes the food safety program appropriate food processing and how the procedure will be monitored and recorded.

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