Different Techniques For Providing Fresh Water To Arid Regions Of The World

Introduction
The problem of water every year is becoming increasingly important, forcing scholars and political scientists talk about the inevitability of future conflicts over ownership of this strategic resource. Indeed, the population in the Middle East and Africa is growing at a rapid pace, and the sources of the water almost as quickly exhausted. Arid climate, uncontrolled population growth and other factors make water a truly “transparent gold» XXI century. Stocks worldwide oceanic and continental waters are 1.5 billion cubic kilometers; they are extremely high salt content and are not suitable for drinking. The share of fresh water in the world’s total water is 2.53% or 31-35 million cubic kilometers. But those waters enclosed by the glaciers, which are in the form of air and soil moisture in the underground seas, are not available for development.
Thus, humankind has conditionally 0.3% or 93.0 thousand cubic kilometers fresh water, which could be used for industrial and economic goals. (USGS, 2011) According to figures published in August 2004 in a joint report by the World Health Organization and UNICEF more than one billion people still use unsafe sources of drinking water. Those most at risk are developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa area. African Bank experts estimate that for a radical improvement of rural water supply for the people of Africa to 2015 need to find at least $ 10 billion. In this case, 80 percent of Africans will be able to enjoy clean water, while continuing to be as massive investment in 2025 to normal water around the black continent.

As pointed out by the International Water Management Institute, to solve the problem of water, it is needed to take urgent measures. In particular, to build reservoirs, use the rainwater harvesting, etc. The most acute problem of water shortage is for Africa and Asia as an arid regions and the purpose of this essay to provide and compare two possible way of solution such as desalination and recycling.
Background
“Globally, water consumption over the past 100 years has increased by six times and will double again by 2050. Some countries have already run out of water and cannot produce food. The consequence will be even more widespread water shortages and soaring prices for this resource “, – said the director of the International Water Management Institute Frank Rijsberman. (APEC Water, 2011)
Population
(FAO Water, 2012)
In the twentieth century the world’s population has tripled. During this period, the consumption of fresh water has increased in 7 times, including at the municipal water needs in13 times. With this rise in consumption become the lack of water resources in many regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization, more than two billion people in the world today suffer from a shortage of drinking water. In the next 20 years, given the current trends of population growth and the world economy is expected to increase demand for fresh water for at least 100 cubic kilometers per year.
Water sources
(IMSD, 2012)
The 97% of water in our planet is saline water, the other 3% is fresh water. The surface water resource consists of ground water (30.1%), icecaps and glaciers (68.7%), and others (0.9%), such as water vapor and clouds. The biggest part of water that is used is found in lakes (87%), swamps (11%) and rivers (2%). Unfortunately, water problem in Asia and Africa are closely related to another equally important problem as food. Arab countries annually spend $ 50 billion just for agricultural irrigation. As the Minister of Egypt Water Resources Mahmud Abu Zeid said by 2025 90% of the Arab countries would fall below the “poverty of water resources.” To prevent this, need for a unified Arab strategy of water use. (5th World Water Forum Secretariat, 2009)
Options of solutions
In the oil-rich Arab countries went through the right, but expensive, deciding to allocate billions of dollars annually for the desalination of sea water. By some estimates, the Arabian country’s now use about 70% of desalinate water.( NRC, 2010) However, the governments of most countries in Asia and Africa, such costs obviously can afford. Another way to save water is recycling. For example, for many years in Singapore does not throw waste water into rivers and the sea. All dirty water is recycled and cleared. Singaporeans are not only purifying sewage water. They desalinate sea water and collect rainwater.
Desalination
The UN agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the National Organization of more than 15 countries are engaged in desalination of ocean and sea water. This allows the most efficient way to absorb the wealth of the ocean water. Desalination of salt water is perspective because a large numbers of arid areas adjacent to ocean coast, or are close to it. Thus, ocean and sea water are raw materials for industrial use. Nowadays exist about 30 ways to of desalination of sea water. All methods of turning salt water into fresh water require more energy.
In general, the share of electricity accounts for about half of the cost of desalination, the other half goes to the maintenance and depreciation of equipment. So, the cost of desalinated water depends mainly on the cost of electricity. (FWR, 2011) However, where is a lack of fresh water and exist the conditions for the desalination the cost factor recedes into the background. In some areas desalination is environmentally advantageous than bringing water from far away. Desalination of salt water is developing quite rapidly. As a result, every two or three years, the total capacity of installations doubled.
Recycling
Cleaning and recycling of industrial water is a key point in the cycle of water supply and sanitation. Standard cleaning contaminated industrial water will significantly improve the quality of water before re-use and avoid inappropriate use of potable water and a costly drain collection system in municipal wastewater. (Anglogold Ashanti, 2010) A problem that can be found this denial by people using of purified sewage water as the main source, but in the world there are countries which do not enjoy much of a choice.
The only salvation for those countries is recycling water plants. In the case of the location on the coast, desalination is the option but if the sea is far and the country cannot afford the costs of desalination the recycling sewage plants is the good choice. Water passes membrane cleaning and disinfected with ultraviolet light: it is sufficient for industrial use. That portion of the water that goes into the water, further purified and mixed with water reserves in reservoirs, which are filtered and supplied to the taps.
For instance, in Egypt they have Nile River and use its water but dirty water is drained from the waste back into the Nile. (Ecopreneur, 2011) This kind of water cannot substitute drinking water but will significantly reduce the cost of transportation of drinking water and provide an opportunity for the use of recycled water in industry and agriculture for arid regions.
Conclusion
Nowadays Asia, the Middle East and the most part of Africa has unstable supply of fresh water. Over the past forty years, the number of fresh water at the rate per person decreased by almost 60%. The main consumer of water is agriculture. Nowadays this sector accounts for over 85% of all available fresh water. Needs are increasing and the amount of water decreases. Today, almost 2 billion of people in more than 80 countries have a limited supply of drinking water. By 2025 nearly 50 countries with a total population of 3 billion people will face water shortages. (World Bank, 2007)
Even with the abundance of rain that falls in China, a country half the population is not provided properly with drinking water in the regular mode. In such an acute shortage of fresh water is becoming especially popular desalination and water recycling as an alternative way to recharge. For the health and tone, people need clean and fresh water. Crude raw water is the cause of many human diseases, so people should not drink it. Water treatment is one of the most promising solutions to meet the needs of the population in the drinking water because groundwater resources are reduced, and rivers and lakes are on the verge of its existence.
The ability of countries to solve problems related to climate change, and the issue of water, in particular, like many in the Middle East, is directly dependent on the will and determination of the political leadership of the region. (STS, 2012) Once, the King Hussein of Jordan argued that “the only question that Jordan would plunge into a war – is water.” The same opinion is shared by the former UN General Secretary, Boutros Ghali, the Egyptian, stated that “the next war in the Middle East will be over water.”

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