Communication Process And Types Of Information Information Technology Essay

Communication is in general exchange and transfer of data and information among people; it is an important fact of having clear and effective role of communication in

An organization and it holds a key factor in its effectiveness of the work place.

Proper and direct communication encompasses all the means having both the formal and informal by which the core information is passed up or down or the vies versa.

The process is very important as any other thing in taking the organization to a better level, it is been seen as in many organization this field is neglected thus taking the organization slope down.

It is fairly been consider that no expectation can be considered or made with employee having poor communication skills thereof it is far most important for each individual to enhance its communication skills in order to achieve and the organizational functional goals and make its presence in the market.

Good communication can increase customer relations, boost up employee satisfaction

Create sharing of knowledge and information throughout the system of the firm and the most importantly enhance the organization competitiveness.

Types of Communication

The basic techniques and ways of communication are used to transfer and pass down information from one entity to the other as whole there are four basic type of communication process which are further elaborate as.

Verbal communication

Non verbal communication

Visual communication

Written communication

Verbal communication

It is a most common and usual way of communication and used for the transfer of information this include sounds, language, speaking and words. It is by far the fastest and effective means of communication in any organization good command and control and having well knowledge is a pivotal factor in verbal communication

The way of speaking is further elaborated into two more types’ interpersonal communication and public speaking. Ricky W. Griffin (2007)

Interpersonal communication

A grasp of good verbal or oral communication is an inseparable part of the business communication as foreseen everyday in the business environment we come across people from various culture, age and race but only accurate and fluent verbal communication can bridge across the gap and play a vital function to deal with individuals in an organization and business meeting that can lead to success.

Public speaking

In this type of communication individual or the speaker have to address and convey the message to a group of people, the speech must be efficiently prepared to be more effective for the whole group of people it should be prepared according to the type of audience you are facing to be much more interactive and to have a assertive interaction.

Nonverbal Communication

It involves with physical and superficial ways of communication, it is much more expressive but yet the effectiveness of this method of communication falls below the counter part of verbal communication.

It includes the tone of the voice its pitch, touch, body movement, expressions and gestures. Through all these observation any good observer can judge very easily about the intense meaning just for an understanding like hand shaking, padding and the way of touching can far more greatly express the feeling and the meaning of the particular situation and message and the code of communication.

It is also been understand and stated that reading a person facial expression and help far greatly to know that person and its attitude.

“Non-verbal communication behaviour occurs only when appropriate verbal forms are unavailable.” Key (1980).

Visual Communication

Visual communication is evolving day by day and growing its importance in today’s

Emerging business environment it is much more interactive and innovative it involve visual display of information like






Visual communication varies from person to’ person in the way of its own observation and intake of the information it involve the other party to get involve in understanding the prescribed message in a much more interesting and creative manner .

Written Communication

It is the most important type of communication process no organization can survive and operate without this mode of communication method. In written communication the information passed down is very clear and appropriate with recorded documentation for future referencing the information can never be misinterpreted at the receiver end.

In the business environment reports, memo, letters, proposals etc are the form of written communication

Written communication can be verified and checked and edited before sending it through and this acts as its advantage its far much more important that any written information should be clear and in a proper format for the receiver to understand and make a reasonable meaning and understanding out of it. And it can be both formal and as well as informal. Dalmar.F (1993)

Communication Networks

Wheel network

Y network

Chain network

Circle network

Star Network…/hairpin-

Wheel Network

In this particular form of network there in one central key position or person passes down information which is received by others which can one or more than one person e.g. we can take as for a the director of any organization as the centre person in the wheel which is passing orders and information which is followed by the other employee and subordinates. Kenneth D. Mackenzie (1996)

Y network

This is the second level of communication network system it is centralized but variably less as compared to the wheel network in this type the information is passed through the central authority but gets divided in to two sub ordinates the main centre person act as gate controller for all the information and is responsible to pass down information to either of those two extend branches.

In a business relation example it is explained as a source of order is given to the subordinates just as a director would pass down an informative order to its assistant manager which will then pass it to the two of it supervisors of different department with no source of communication between the last two link is a perfect example of y communication. L. Marquis, B. (2008)


Chain Network

It is simplest form of communication network and very much widely used than any other network, in the system information is passed between different departments

Information is exchanged between them with different role of communication and a network is formed with common relation forming a chain structure. Anne.M (1995).

Circle Network

In circle network the communicated information is revolve around which allow each individual member to communicate with direct relation with the other of two member.

The best example can be taken where the top management such as managing director

Pass a documented proposal which they pass among them self and give there suggestion and opinion till it reaches to the first directed post where a collective decision takes place after a mutual feedback and concern thus this makes a circle network. Janet Fulk (1990)

Star Network

In a star network communication each member can communicate and give opinion directly with no restriction and blockage of any kind ,they can communicate freely the best example is the board meeting where all the directors sits together discuss give opinions on core issues freely make arguments and lead there way to final conclusion and decision. Campbell, G.M (2009)

Vertical Communication

It consist of communication going up and down or the vice versa to each other

With the chain of command, the downward communication goes through the path way of through hierarchy system starting from top management to which it follows down to the managerial level then to the supervisors and toward the line workers.

The major ideology of this downward communication is to advise ,direct and inform the employees to provide organization members with information about organizational polices and strategy. Ricky W. Griffin (2007)

Advantages of Vertical communication

Free flow of information

efficient way of getting feedback

Gain confidence makes positive relationship

Process is systematic

Disadvantage of vertical communication

Passage of information is time consuming

Information can be disoriented and leaked

Information can be changed and alter as it reaches down through the hierarchy level.

Horizontal Communication

It is also known as lateral communication, this take place among the employees and manager among the same department. W. Griffin, R. (2007)

Advantages of Horizontal communication

Timing is efficient it is very fast way of communication.

There is no hierarchy between information flows.

There is no mutual need of confidentiality.

Disadvantage of horizontal communication

Information that is passed can be worthless sometime and can be of no use.

Can create interrelationship conflict.


In the end the core summarization of the topic is that efficient communication is vitally important for the correct operation and standardization of any organization good communicative skills is a must have requirement for every employee in today’s business environment.

Confidence and correct collaboration is a key for a good communication process and vital for active organizational operations.

It is also should be in consideration one should be creative and make new innovative ideologies to interact with different individual.

Each and every organization should also work on its organizational communicative process to laid down better enhancement for better medium and port for transmitting of informative process and every direction should be clear and key training should be mandatory provided to each personnel to enhance there communicative skills.

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