Human resource development has in recent years become the focus of attention of the planners, policy makers and administrators. Human resource development may be defined as the process of increasing the knowledge, skills and capacities of people. It is important not only for an enterprise but for a nation to develop its human resources. A country can develop only when its human resources are developed through health, nutrition, education, training and research. At the enterprise level, employee training and executive development are the main areas of human resource development.
Training plays a central role in nurturing and strengthening these competencies and in this way it has become a part of the backbone of strategy implementation. In addition, rapidly changing technologies require that employees continuously enhance their knowledge, skills and abilities to cope with new processes and systems. Job that requires little skill is rapidly being replaced by jobs that require technical, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills.
Other trends towards empowerment, total quality management, teamwork, and international business make it necessary for managers, as well as employees, to develop the skills that will enable them to handle new and more demanding assignments.
Many new employees come equipped with most of the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to start a work. Others may require extensive training before they are ready to make much of a contribution to the organization. Almost, any employee, however, needs some type of ongoing training to maintain effective performance or to adjust to new ways of work.
The primary reason that organization train new employees are to bring their knowledge, skills and abilities up to the level required for satisfactory performance. As these employees continue on the job, additional training provides opportunities for them to acquire new knowledge and skills. As a result of this training, employees may be even more effective on the job and may be able to perform other jobs in other areas or at higher levels.
Concept of training 4
Need for training 5
Objectives of training 7
Designing a training programme 7
Training programme for newly hired first-line sales manager 9
Training methods and techniques 13
Training techniques for the following occupations
Clerk in an office 15
A welder 16
An assembly-line worker 16
An inexperienced supervisor 17
Viper report 20
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. Training process moulds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. It is continuous and never ending in nature.
Training is crucial for organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers and employees of an organization. An employee will become more efficient and productive if he is trained well.
Training is given on four basic grounds:
New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarizes them with the organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions.
The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge.
If any updation and amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For instance, purchasing new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer impartment. The employees are trained about use of new equipments and work methods.
When promotion and career growth becomes important. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job.
The benefits of training can be summed up as:
Improves morale of employees- Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover.
Less supervision- A well trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less of supervision. Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts.
Fewer accidents- Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the more proficient the employee becomes.
Chances of promotion- Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization.
Increased productivity- Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees. Well trained employees show both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are properly trained.
Training is essential for overall success of any organization, it is required because of following reasons:
In order to perform job in a better way an employee needs certain skill set, therefore in order to impart such skill set to an employee training is needed. Training can be given in order to bridge the following gaps.
a. Lack of qualifications: – Employees selected for a particular job might lack the qualifications needed in order to perform the job effectively.
b. Inexperienced employees:- New and inexperienced employees need detailed instructions for successful job performance
c. Remedial training:- Remedial training are given to such experienced employees in case there past experience, attitudes and behavior patterns might be inappropriate to new organization.
d. Orientation training for new employees:- In order to get acquainted with job and organization
a. Automation and Mechanization in offices and service sector
b. Fast changing technology requires new technology training e.g. computerization in public sector.
c. To reap benefits of latest technology.
a. Globalization and liberalization: Training enables an employee to adapt with continually changing environment, it also helps business firms in expansion, their growth and cope with diversification.
b. Training enhances capabilities of employees to face international competition.
c. Refresher training: Refresher training is given to existing employees to keep them abreast of knowledge
d. Prevent obsolescence of skills.
e. Second line of command to meet future needs
Training is also needed in case of internal movement of employees from one unit to other or from one department to other. When the employees are promoted or transferred from one place to other or one job to other then training is given to them.
There for training is a continuous process which helps in taking advantage from new and advanced techniques. With the help of training improvement in old methods can be implemented successfully.
Once the training needs are identified, the next step is to set training objectives in concrete terms and decide the strategies to be adopted to achieve these objectives.
Objectives of training methods can be determined generally as below.
a) Increase job satisfaction and morals among employees
b) Increase employee motivation
c) Increase efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
d) Increase capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
e) Increase innovation in strategies and products
f) Reduce employee turnover
g) Enhance company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)
h) Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training
Training can play an important role in the success of your business. Unfortunately, small businesses (especially those in customer service) often can’t afford to give staff time away from work to attend training during work hours. Similarly, business owners often find the available training is too unspecific and not appropriate to the individual needs of their business.
Whether you are aiming for increased sales, more efficient production, better use of IT, or to create a reliable team that can solve its own problems, training is often the best solution. The best return on your training investment will be achieved by identifying your company’s training needs, taking a systematic approach to sourcing suitable training, and enrolling your employees on the right courses for the job.
In order to achieve the training objectives, an appropriate training policy is necessary. A training policy represents the commitment of top management to employee training. It consists the rules and procedures concerning training. A training policy is required:
To indicate the company’s intention to develop its employees
To guide the design and implementation of training programmes
To identify the critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis
To provide appropriate opportunities to employees for their own betterment
A sound training policy clearly defines the following issues:
The results expected to be achieved through training
The responsibility for the training function
The priorities for training
The type of training required
The time and place of training
The payments to be made to employees ding the training period
The outside agencies to be associated with the training
Relationship of training to the companies labor policy
Once training objectives and policy are decided, an appropriate training programme can be designed and conducted.
Explaining the policy and procedures of the company
Question and answer sessions
Handing over the booklets on the policy and procedures of the company
Incorporating product training in the training programme would help the sales personnel meet the consumers needs and reach their full potential
Visual learning through illustration and demonstration with the help of graphics, images and demonstrations
Auditory learning through lectures and discussions
Through kinesthetic learning with he help of written assignments, notes, examining the objects, participating in activities
This will help the trainees to use a variety of techniques and apply their new found knowledge so that it sticks with them. This will not only impart product knowledge b also how to use product knowledge to sell. Trainees are more engaged when training is fun and interactive. Since, trainees are social beings therefore; social aspects should be included in the classrooms.
The training would consist of two sections of the manuals
Basic guide- It would give all the basic knowledge about the various categories of apparel, different types of fabrics, weaves and styles.
Selling guide- It consists of all the steps required to make a successful sale and would let the participants know the importance of translating the product features into benefits. It consists of all the products present in the store along with their price points and their features and benefits.
The training on product knowledge will be divided in to a three day session. It would include a presentation of the manuals as well as interactive activities for an effective learning session.
Role play: Ask a member of the group to act as the customer and give a very brief outline of their requirements for a product they wish to purchase. e.g. “I would like to buy a shirt for office wear. I would want something which is durable and light”.
The rest of the delegates then have to sell that item focusing on the customer’s needs.
The rules are: The first person gives a feature like “this shirt has wrinkle resistance” and then passes it onto the next participant who has to provide a benefit “which means that, you don’t need to iron it every time u wear it”
It then gets passed to the third delegate who provides another feature, and the fourth then provides the corresponding benefit – matching the customer’s needs, and so on.
After this activity, the participants are likely to get energized. The presentation of the “selling guide” would proceed covering the kids and infants section.
The training module would be wrapped up by a fun activity to help them apply all that they have learnt in this session.
Brainstorm a list of product names and give one name to each small group. Give 15 minutes to each group to come up with the following:
· What the product is/does
· A celebrity spokesperson for that product
· Acting out a commercial for that product
Each team presents their “product” to the larger group
The Approach and Greeting
First impressions and personal appearance
Having a friendly and cheerful disposition
Acknowledging customers you cannot assist immediately
– The Decided Customer
– The Undecided Customer
– The Browsing Customer
Using different types of Greetings
Questioning/Probing to discover the customer’s real needs and wants
Creating Excitement and Desire
Demonstrating merchandise FEATURES and BENEFITS
Involving the customer
The use of technical terms
Handling different types of objections
Identifying the customer’s true objection
Closing the Sale
Recognizing buying signals
Using different types of closing techniques
Generating additional sales:
– Add-on selling
Reassuring and fare welling the customer
Taking responsibility for one’s own action
Applying theoretical knowledge in practical contexts.
Being numerate and literate about the product
Having information and communication technology skills
Sourcing and organizing information effectively
Working effectively in group situations
Understanding health and safety issues
Reflecting on and evaluating quality of own learning and achievement
Assessment of the sales trainees
Use a cash register completely including the use of barcodes
The correct procedures when handling cash transactions
Deal with the following procedures when handling cash
Follow the correct procedures for validating cheques, credit/debit card transactions
Demonstrate secure procedures when handling payments
Team leaders need to motivate these employees by facilitating them to become apart of the process, giving them adequate training to overcome every hurdle and inspiring them to keep performing consistently. Motivational sales training programs are undertaken purely to inspire, to challenge and to energize all the employees to make the organization’s goal their goal and achieve their individual targets. Team leaders and soft skill trainers are responsible for motivating sales force to achieve their sales target. The team leaders should provide examples, demonstrate courage and exhibit ways how the employee can achieve his or her best.
In order to motivate the team, the leader should be an example to the whole team. Training programs also help sales team to develop an overall understanding of consumer behavior, it helps them to improve their listening skills and understand how to approach customers in order to make effective sales.
Different methods of training are as follows
1. On the job training (OJT): In this method a trainee is placed on the job and then taught the necessary skills to perform his job. Thus in this method the trainee learns by observing and handling the job under the guidance and supervision of instructor or a supervisor. Thus it is also called the learning by doing method. Techniques like coaching, committee assignments and job rotation fall under this method. Job instruction training, (JIT) is also a popular form of the job training. JIT is used for imparting or improving motor skills with routine and repetitive operations. While on the job training allows a trainee to learn in the real environment and handled real machines. It is also cost effective as no extra space equipment personnel or other training facilities are required for imparting this training. The employees also learn the procedures and rule and regulations in this training. There are some limitations also in this method. The noise at the real work places makes it difficult for the new employee to concentrate and there is danger that the employee under training might cause damage to equipment or other material.
2. Vestibule training: In this method a training centre which is known as vestibule is set up where real job conditions are created and expert trainers train the new employees with equipment and machines that a identical with the ones that employees will be using at their work place. This allows the trainees to concentrate on their training because there is no noise of the real work place. As the same time the interest of the employee remains quite high as real work place conditions are simulated in this training. It also saves new employees from a possible injury or any damage to the machines at the real work place. Vestibule training is beneficial for training a large number of employees in a similar type of job. But vestibule training involves the lot of expenditure as experts trainers along with the class room and equipment are required to simulate the real work place environment which is very difficult to create.
3. Apprenticeship: It is the oldest and most commonly used method of training in technical areas and crafts and trades where the skills of the job are learnt over a long period of time. The industrial training institutes (ITI) provide this kind of training in India. The apprenticeship act 1962 requires the employers in certain industries to train a particular number of persons in specific trades. For trades like mechanist, tool makers, carpenters weaver, Jeweler, Engraver, this type of training is very helpful. Apprenticeship helps in maintaining a skilled work force and is a combination of both theory and practical. It also results in high level of loyalty by the employees and increases their chances for growth but it is time consuming and extensive method. Many persons leave this training in between because of the long training duration.
4. Class room training: It is provided in company class rooms or educational institution through lectures audio visual aids, case studies and group discussion. It is very helpful and teaching problems solving skills and new concepts. It is also useful in orientations and safety training programs. For teaching new technologies to software professionals, class room training is often used.
5. Internship: It involves training the colleges or universities pass outs about the practical aspects of their study. This method of training provides a chance to the students to implement the theoretical concepts that they have learnt during their study. Thus it balances the theoretical and practical aspects of the study. Professional likes chartered accountants, MBA’s, company secretaries and doctors are given training through this method.
6. E-learning: Many companies have implemented e-learning, which encompasses several different types of technology assisted training, such as distance learning, computer-based training (CBT), or web-based training (WBT). Distance learning occurs when trainers and trainees are in remote locations; typically, technology is used to broadcast a trainer’s lecture to many trainees in many separate locations. Distance learning provides many of the same advantages and disadvantages as the lecture method. Distance learning can be much less expensive than paying for trainees in multiple locations to travel for a lecture, but it may reduce motivation to learn because of the remoteness of the trainer.
Computer-based training and web-based training are virtually similar. With this type of training, content is delivered through the computer, using any combination of text, video, audio, chat rooms, or interactive assessment. E-learning is an alternative to classroom-based training, and it can provide a number of advantages. E-learning can:
reduce trainee learning time, by allowing trainees to progress at their own pace
reduce the cost of training, particularly by reducing costs associated with travel to a training location
provide instructional consistency, by offering the same training content to employees worldwide
allow trainees to learn at their own pace thereby reducing any boredom or anxiety that may occur
provide a safe method for learning hazardous tasks with computer simulations
increase access to training to learners in locations around the world
E-learning is effective at developing declarative and, in particular, procedural knowledge. It can be useful in developing some types of skills and for modifying attitudes.
Training techniques recommended for the following occupations:
A clerk is a white-collar worker who conducts general office tasks, or a worker who performs similar sales-related tasks in a retail environment (a retail clerk). The responsibilities of clerical workers commonly include record keeping, filing, staffing service counters and other administrative tasks.
The training technique that is suitable for him/her is on-the-job training. Office clerks are responsible for executing a wide range of administrative tasks associated with the daily functions of an office. Clerks may enter data, answer phones, make photocopies and file records.
On-the-job training is training that takes place at the work site and is supervised by a manager or an experienced coworker. Fill areas of gaps with knowledge and skills, and change all negative attitudes to positive attitude. It helps improve performance of employees to enhance productivity and profit of the organization. Fulfill organizational long term goals i.e. vision, and quality objectives. Adopt proactive and zero defect culture. Encourage innovative and creative ideas of employees for optimum use of materials.
A welder is a tradesman who specializes in welding materials together. The materials to be joined can be metals (such as steel, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, etc.) or varieties of plastic or polymer. Welders typically have to have good dexterity and attention to detail, as well as some technical knowledge about the materials being joined and best practices in the field.
Apprenticeship training in imparted to a welder and is known as welder apprentice training. Pre-technical skills in industrial math, measurements, and workplace safety, help trainees build basic knowledge before tackling the specific courseware they need to achieve success as professional welders. They learn all about metal cutting, drilling, and AC and DC electrical principles, as well as testing and troubleshooting. Since the best method for perfecting welding skills is through repeated practice, this method makes sure that employees have easy and frequent access to up-to-date gas and arc welding equipment.
Assembly line workers are responsible for performing one task or a set of tasks in an assembly process. Assembly lines are found in various factories where products being manufactured consist of a number of components assembled to form a complete unit.
Assembly line workers usually stand alongside a conveyor system, perform the necessary task, and allow the product to pass on to the next worker. Most assembly line work is performed by hand, but sometimes tools are used. Commonly used tools are screwdrivers, pliers, soldering irons and tools specifically designed for certain processes. A typical assembly line task is drilling holes in an item for screws and passing the item on for the next worker to fix the screws into the holes.
There are three ways of training:
1. an apprenticeship is a 4-year contract between company and apprentice, comprising a 12-week theoretical training, which includes 4 subjects at national exam level.
2. A learnership is a contract between learner, employer and training provider, which provides for the achievement of a qualification, run over approximately 3 one-year periods.
3. FET (further education and training colleges) offer theoretical training to prospective artisans via the new National Certificate Vocational (NCV). During this 3-year programme (levels 2 to 4), learners complete a school-leaving certificate (this NCV) similar to the new National Senior Certificate (NSC) in schools. They are also exposed to a practical workshop component.
All learners are required to complete a practical internship under the supervision of an experienced artisan. As an alternative to doing the full qualification, a learner can apply to do a skills programme at a FET College. Skills programmes are short practical hands-on courses.
Learners must all receive training in occupational safety and first aid, fire-fighting and preventative security measures. Learners study everything about the installation, maintenance and repair of all electrical equipment. They must also become familiar with municipal legislation relevant to electricity supply and consumption.
Supervisor has got an important role to play in factory management. Supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work at the factory level. The supervisor is a part of the management team and he holds the designation of first line managers. He is a person who has to perform many functions which helps in achieving productivity. Therefore, supervisor can be called as the only manager who has an important role at execution level. There are certain philosophers who call supervisors as workers. There are yet some more philosophers who call them as managers. But actually he should be called as a manager or operative manager. His primary job is to manage the workers at operative level of management.
The individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimized as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.
The purpose of training and management development programs is to improve employee capabilities and organizational capabilities. When the organization invests in improving the knowledge and skills of its employees, the investment is returned in the form of more productive and effective employees. Training and development programs may be focused on individual performance or team performance.
The creation and implementation of training and management development programs should be based on training and management development needs identified by a training needs analysis so that the time and money invested in training and management development is linked to the mission or core business of the organization.
At different stages of their careers, employees need different kinds of training and different kinds of development experiences. Although a business degree might prepare students for their first job, they will need to gain knowledge and skills through education and experience as they progress through their career.
Therefore, to maximize the effectiveness of training and development, organizations must constantly assess their employees’ current training and development needs and identify training and development needs to prepare employees for their next position. This requires that organizations recognize that different employees will have different needs and that these needs will change over time as these workers continue in their careers.
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